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Kreefpryse styg net betyds vir die hoogseisoen

Kreefpryse styg net betyds vir die hoogseisoen



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Veranderde watertemperature in New England veroorsaak dat die gemiddelde kreefpryse met $ 2 per pond styg

Jou jaarlikse kreefgebak kos vanjaar dalk 'n bietjie meer.

Niks sê somer soos om oop te maak nie pragtige kreef dop met 'n bier en goeie vriende aan jou sy. Die prys van kreef per pond is reeds minstens $ 1 tot $ 2 meer as verlede jaar.

Volgens Business Insider, warmer watertemperatuur veroorsaak dat krewe vroeër in die jaar gesmelt word, wat 'n kreefboom skep teen die tyd dat die visvangseisoen begin. Volgens 2012, Richard Wahle, navorsingsprofessor aan die Universiteit van Maine, het 2012 die laagste pryse vir die gewilde skulpvis sedert die dertigerjare, die jaar van die laaste “oseaanhittegolf” aan die ooskus, veroorsaak. Sedertdien het die waters van die Atlantiese Oseaan egter afgekoel.Die ernstige koue in New England hierdie jaar sal nog meer skade veroorsaak: Kouer watertemperature + 'n voorspelde latere smeltseisoen = minder kreef en aansienlik hoër pryse.

Navorsers voorspel dat die smeelseisoen einde Julie of vroeg in Augustus sal plaasvind, wat 'n rimpeleffek op vraag en aanbod internasionaal sal veroorsaak. Dit mag ook nie 'n toeval wees nie. Met minder kreeflarwes in die waters rondom New England, kan dit volgens Wahle 'n slag wees vir die voorheen bloeiende kreefbedryf.


3.4: Die uitwerking van vraag- en aanbodverskuiwings op ewewig

2.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om 'n aanbodkromme te teken wat met minder as die vraaglyn na links skuif. Benoem hierdie reël 'S2'.

3.) Gebruik die punttekeninstrument om die nuwe ewewigspunt te identifiseer. Benoem hierdie punt

Die opmerking van die student (dat ons as gevolg van hierdie gebeure nie met sekerheid kan weet of die prys van gebottelde water van hoë gehalte sal styg of daal nie) is

Bron: Siobhan Hughes, Natalie Andrews en Kristina Peterson, & quot; Senate kyk vinnig na Trump Administration Hearings, Health Law en Wall Street Journal, 8 Januarie 2017.

Bron: Marvin G. Perez, & quotCoffee-Loving Millennials Push Demand to a Record, & quot bloomberg.com, 30 Oktober 2016.

Gebruik 'n vraag- en aanbodgrafiek van die koffiemark om te illustreer hoe die ewewigskoffie van koffie as gevolg van hierdie gebeurtenisse kan toeneem. Maak seker dat alle kurwes op u grafieke behoorlik gemerk is, dat u enige verskuiwings in die krommes toon en dat u die aanvanklike en finale ewewigspunte aandui.

1.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om die effek van die groei in die duisendjarige vraag na koffie te teken deur 'n nuwe vraagkromme te teken. Benoem jou kromme 'D2'.

2.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om die effek van droë weer en droogtes op koffiegewasse te teken deur 'n nuwe aanbodkromme te teken. Benoem jou kromme 'S2'.

a. Kan ons hierdie inligting gebruik om seker te wees of die ewewigsprys van lemoensap sal styg of daal?

b. Kan ons hierdie inligting gebruik om seker te wees of die ewewigshoeveelheid lemoensap toeneem of afneem?
Gebruik 'n vraag en aanbod grafiek om u antwoorde op die vrae hierbo te illustreer.

Bron: Jay Harlow, & quotLobster: An Affordable Luxury, & quot Sallybernstein.com.

Om aan te toon of die prys van kreef in die herfs hoër of laer is as gedurende die somer,

1.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om 'n kreefaanbodkurwe (Ssummer) en 'n kreefvraagkurwe (Dsummer) vir die somer te teken. Merk die lyne behoorlik.

2.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om 'n kreeftoevoerkurwe te teken
(SFall) en 'n kreefvraagkurwe (DFall) vir die herfs wat die verbeterde visstoestande weerspieël en dat vakansiegangers huis toe is. Merk die lyne behoorlik.

Die enorme invoer van goedkoop piesangs na die Verenigde State is geneig om die binnelandse verbruik van vars vrugte in die Verenigde State te beperk.

Bron: aangehaal in Douglas A. Irwin, Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011, p. 22.

Hierdie produsent het blykbaar aanvaar dat appels en piesangs __________ is.

In 'n grafiek (nie getoon nie) van die piesangmark in die Verenigde State, sou die heffing van 'n tarief op piesanginvoer _________________________.

Bron: Andrew Ward, & quotBP waarsku oor prysdruk van langtermyn olieglut, & quot Financial Times, 25 Januarie 2017.

Is die student se analise korrek? Illustreer u antwoord met 'n vraag- en aanbodgrafiek.

1.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om die effek van groei in Amerikaanse skalieolie te teken deur 'n nuwe aanbodkromme te teken. Benoem jou kromme 'S2'.

2.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om die effek van die toenemende gebruik van elektriese voertuie te teken deur 'n nuwe vraagkromme te teken. Benoem jou kromme 'D2'.

Bron: Lee A. Craig, Barry Goodwin en Thomas Grennes, "The Effect of Mechanical Refrigeration on Nutrition in the US," Social Science History, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Summer 2004), pp. 327-328.

1.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om nuwe vraag- en aanbodkrommes te teken wat die hierbo beskryf beskryf. Merk die lyne behoorlik.

2.) Gebruik die punttekeninstrument om die 2018 -ewewig te teken. Benoem die punt behoorlik.

Verhoogde produksie lei tot 'n laer prys, wat weer die vraag verhoog

Sy het die grafiek na regs geteken en dit soos volg verduidelik: & quot (van S1 tot S2). Omdat hierdie verskuiwing in die aanbodkromme 'n laer prys (P2) tot gevolg het, sal verbruikers meer premium gebottelde water wil koop en die vraagkurwe na regs (van D1 na D2). Ons weet dat meer premium gebottelde water sal wees Verkoop word, maar ons kan nie seker wees of die prys van premium gebottelde water sal styg of daal nie. Dit hang af of die aanbodkromme of die vraagkromme verder na regs verskuif het. Ek neem aan dat die effek op aanbod groter is as die effek op vraag, dus toon ek die finale ewewigsprys (P3) as laer as die aanvanklike ewewigsprys (P1). & Quot

Pas elke scenario by die toepaslike diagram.
a. 'N Afname in die aanbod van sportdrankies: 4

b. 'N Daling in die gemiddelde huishoudelike inkomste in die Verenigde State van $ 56,000 tot $ 52,000: 3

c. 'N Verbetering in die botteltegnologie vir premium gebottelde water: 2

Gegewe bogenoemde ontwikkelings:

1.) Gebruik die lyntekeninstrument om 'n nuwe vraagkromme te teken. Benoem hierdie reël 'D2'.


Kruideniersware en bakkery | Soja -olie

Die wêreldwye groente -oliepryse bly stewig te midde van 'n toenemende vraag, laer palmolievoorrade en die droë weer in Suid -Amerika, terwyl die land wag op die komende oes. As ons die sojaboonvervoer na China van Januarie tot November vanjaar bymekaar tel, is die totaal 3x hoër as 2019! Dit is meestal te wyte aan die heropbou van hul voorrade na Covid-19 en die groter vraag wat nodig is om hul herboude varkkuddes te voed. Dit lyk miskien na 'n verre herinnering, maar een van die grootste verhale van 2019 was Afrikaanse varkoors en die vernietiging van die Chinese varkevoorraad (ongeveer 50% laer). Die varkevoorrade het sedertdien herstel tot 85% van wat dit eens was, maar die grootste verandering is in die dieet. Die nuwe plase wat aanlyn gekom het, gebruik 'n meer konsekwente, soja-gebaseerde dieet as wat baie van die agterplase van die verlede gebruik het. Ag kommoditeite het gereageer met prysvlakke wat nie sedert 2014 gesien is nie. Pryse sal na verwagting ten minste tot in die eerste kwartaal van 2020 stewig bly, in afwagting van die produksieresultate uit Suid -Amerika. 'N Goeie oes behoort die prysdruk te verlig. As daar ontwrigtings is, kan ons sien dat pryse hoër styg.


Hoogseisoen vir toeriste in Belize

Belize kombineer die robuuste skoonheid van die oerwoude van Sentraal -Amerika met die ongerepte kuslyn van die Karibiese eilande. Anders as sy bure in die noorde (Tulum, Cancun) en die ooste (die Kaaimanseilande, Jamaika), is Belize nog nie op elke reisiger se radar nie, ten minste nog nie. Alhoewel baie streke van die land heerlik onaangeraak bly-die Maya-berge, die Cayo-oerwoud en talle van die land se eilande buite die land-word bestemmings soos San Pedro in die winter toenemend gewilder.

Die hoogseisoen kom in November, begin met Thanksgiving, en eindig in die middel van April, nadat die laaste van die feesgangers met die terugreis huis toe geniet het. Die swaarste besoekersval kom van middel Desember tot middel Januarie op sy tropiese grond neer. Gedurende hierdie tyd styg die reiskoste - hotelpryse, vliegtuigkaartjies, streekaktiwiteite - dienooreenkomstig, aangesien daar 'n groter vraag is.

Kostebewuste besoekers moet dit oorweeg om hul verblyf te bespreek tot vroeg in die lente wanneer die pryse daal, maar die temperatuur nie. Afgesien van die gereeld vlugtige middagstort (wat verwag kan word in 'n land wat bekend is vir sy reënwoud), bly die weer die hele jaar warm en sonnig in Belize.


Lewenskrag kreef vissery gooi op dreef: hoe DFO se onbedoeldheid die geskiedenis herhaal

St Mary's Bay in die suidweste van Nova Scotia is vol kreef. Dit is een van die volopste plekke in die winsgewendste kreefvanggebied (LFA 34, tegnies) in Kanada. Dit is ook - soos die naam aandui - 'n baai. Omring deur die lang skiereiland Digby Neck en sy eilande, is die lang, smal watermassa van die baai relatief kalm en die diepte relatief vlak in vergelyking met die groter visvanggebied. Hierdie eienskappe maak dit saam 'n baie aantreklike plek om te hengel.

Die inheemse en nie-inheemse vissers het baie hulpbronne daaroor, en al meer as 20 jaar lank het die spanning tussen die twee gemeenskappe verander van kook tot kookpunt, om weer te kook. Onlangs het dit internasionaal opslae gemaak. Spanning in die gebied het tot geweld en vernietiging uitgebreek nadat die Sipekne'katik First Nation sy eie, selfgereguleerde vissery buite die kommersiële seisoen geloods het, gebaseer op Mi'kmaq-verdragsregte.

Vir Alex McDonald, een van die oudste kapteins van die inheemse kreefboot wat nog steeds in die omgewing was, was die chaos vanjaar niks nuuts nie.

'Weet u wat, ek was al so lank hier, twee, driehonderd nie-inboorlinge kom na die kaai, en dit is niks nuuts nie,' sê hy. 'Ek is so gewoond daaraan, ek vee dit net af, want ek weet dit is snert.'

Sedert hy 'n kind was, jag en vang McDonald onder sy verdragsregte waarmee sy oupa hom voorgestel het, lank voordat die huidige generasie gehoor het van die term 'matige lewensbestaan' en selfs voor die Hooggeregshof se uitspraak in Marshall in 1999.

Verlede herfs-voor die COVID-19-pandemie, voor hierdie jaar se geweld-het ek aan boord gegaan van die boot van McDonald's om te sien hoe hy hengel.

  • McDonald werk aan boord van die Franse Lilly op 'n kalm grys oggend in November 2019.
  • Stefan Sinclair-Fortin

'Die water is plat soos die hel,' sê McDonald in sy Boston -aksent, terwyl hy sy vissersboot see toe stuur. Die 43-voet, watergroen boot met die naam van die Franse Lilly verlaat Saulnierville-kaai in St Mary's Bay. Sy dieselenjin ruk hard in die rustige oggend weg. 'N Paar sneeuvlokkies val saggies uit die lug, sommige word deur die boot se trek gevang en volg 'n oomblik voordat hulle verder gaan.

McDonald volg sy GPS tot waar hy sy lokvalle gelê het. Hy hou 'n oog op die pixel -skerm van sy dieptesoeker, op soek na 'n rotsagtige bodem waar krewe graag woon. 'Binne -in sou die dip 'n goeie plek wees,' sê hy.

Die Franse Lilly is die sewende boot van McDonald's, wat sy vyfde seisoen saam met hom hengel nou in November 2019. Hy hengel al meer as 20 jaar. Voordat werk hy in die konstruksie met gips en metselwerk, en werk 'n tydperk van sy lewe in Boston, waar hy sy aksent kry. Hy hou meer van visvang as van konstruksie, en hy sê omdat hy geen slegte gewoontes het nie, kon hy genoeg geld bespaar om sy eerste boot te koop.

Die kommersiële kreefvisseseisoen hier word nie vir nog 11 dae oopgemaak nie, maar McDonald het reeds lokvalle wat in die water week. Op die kalm, grys horison van die see word drie ander bote gesien hengel. Soos McDonald, is hulle almal inheemse vissers wat die reg het om die hele jaar deur te hengel. Sommige visvang dalk om hulself te voed, terwyl ander, soos McDonald, visvang om hul vangs te verkoop.

Lewensbestaan ​​hengel het 'n omstrede verlede. Dit was 'n spanningspunt tussen inheemse en nie-inheemse vissers, met visserybeamptes tussenin. Dit is 'n term wat deur die Hooggeregshof van Kanada geskep is, wat duidelikheid ontbreek en laat stagneer. Vir meer as 20 jaar navigeer McDonald deur sy troebel waters.

  • Kreefvalle moet deur DFO bio -afbreekbare panele hê om 'spookvisvang' te voorkom as die strik op see verlore gaan.
  • Stefan Sinclair-Fortin

In 1993 word Donald Marshall Jr. van die Membertou First Nation aangekla van visvang en die verkoop van palings buite die seisoen en sonder 'n lisensie. Hy het aangevoer dat hy die reg het om dit te doen, soos uiteengesit in die vredes- en vriendskapsverdragte, wat in die 18de eeu tussen die Mi'kmaq en die Britte onderteken is. Maar hy is in die provinsiale hof skuldig bevind. Hy het appèl aangeteken teen die skuldigbevinding, en in September 1999 het die Hooggeregshof van Kanada Marshall vrygespreek van alle aanklagte wat sy reg om homself te onderhou bevestig.

Die uitspraak lui: "Die verdragsregte van die beskuldigde is beperk tot die verkryging van 'benodigdhede' (wat in die moderne konteks as 'n matige lewensonderhoud beskou moet word)." Daar word gesê dat 'n matige lewensbestaan ​​minder is as 'die opeenhoping van rykdom', maar dat dit amper skaars is, aangesien 'die blote bestaan ​​die afgelope paar eeue gelukkig as 'n gepaste lewensstandaard' vir beide inheemse en -Inheemse mense.

Baie nie-inheemse vissers was woedend oor die hofuitspraak. Hulle word bedreig deur wat hulle beskou as die ongereguleerde toegang wat inheemse mense tot die hulpbron het, en protesteer.

Die West Nova Fisherman's Coalition-'n groep nie-inheemse, kommersiële vissers-het by die Hooggeregshof aansoek gedoen om 'n herverhoor van Marshall se saak. Die mosie is van die hand gewys. In November 1999 bied die hof egter 'n verduideliking aan van sy aanvanklike uitspraak, waarin verklaar word dat die federale en provinsiale regerings die bevoegdheid het "om die uitoefening van 'n verdragsreg te reguleer waar dit op bewaring of ander gronde geregverdig is." Die ander redes sluit in "dwingende en aansienlike openbare doelwitte wat ekonomiese en streeksregverdigheid kan insluit", maar die beskerming van die visbestande is die belangrikste: "Die belangrikste regulatoriese doelwit is bewaring en die verantwoordelikheid daarvoor word vierkantig op die minister geplaas."

Die minister was, en is, die hoof van die federale departement van visserye en oseane, wat ook Fisheries and Oceans Canada genoem word, maar algemeen bekend as DFO. In 1999 het DFO te doen gehad met die ineenstorting van kabeljoubestande in die Atlantiese Oseaan en gepaardgaande kritiek van sowel bewaringsgesinde mense as kommersiële kabeljouvissers, en die besluite van Marshall het in die openbaar nog 'n omstrede kwessie bygevoeg.

Die hof het DFO 'n los gedefinieerde verantwoordelikheid gegee, sy dubbelsinnige grense wat gekenmerk word deur die inheemse reg tot 'n 'matige lewensbestaan', en die regering se reg om die verdragsreg te reguleer, solank as wat hy kan beweer dat hy optree in die belang van 'bewaring' ”Of watter ander gronde dit ook al sou waag. In hierdie wettige grys gebied moes die DFO besluit hoeveel visvang te veel was.

Teen die tyd van die hooggeregshofuitsprake was David Bishara 'n afdelingsopsigter by die DFO in die suide van Nova Scotia. Hy is nie meer by die departement nie. As ons in 2019 praat, werk hy as 'n mariene makelaar en verkoop hy vislisensies en kwotas. In sy kantoor, 'n paar gesinsfoto's op sy deurmekaar lessenaar, is sy herinneringe van dekades vroeër sterk.

'Toe die uitspraak uitkom, was dit basies' OK, hier gaan ons 'en' Hoe gaan dit bestuur word ',' sê Bishara. 'Ons het geweet dat daar geweld sou wees, ons het geweet dat daar probleme sou ontstaan ​​tussen die inheemse, nie-inheemse gemeenskap tussen die visserybedryf en die inheemse gemeenskappe.

Bishara onthou hoe hy spanning in die lug voel soos elektrisiteit, terwyl inheemse vissers die waters stadig begin toets. In die jaar 2000 het die spanning 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe albei kante ingegrawe het. Inheemse vissers gaan ten alle koste hul regte uitoefen, en nie-inheemse vissers wat onenig was, gaan hulle probeer keer.

"Dis toe dat die spreekwoordelike kak die waaier tref," sê Bishara. 'Dit is toe die geweld, die uiterste handhawing, die dreigemente van die nie-inheemse gemeenskap, die dreigemente van die inheemse gemeenskap ... dit is wanneer alles oral uitgebars het.'

Onder druk van die kommersiële visserybedryf het die DFO die handhawing verskerp. Inheemse vissers het volgehou dat hulle binne hul verdragsregte was en teruggedruk. Alex McDonald was ook daar, en onthou hoe hy gevoel het dat hulle in 'n oorlog was.

'Hulle het die RCMP met fokken bote en alles ingebring. Ek bedoel hulle het die magte grootliks verhoog, ”sê McDonald. 'Dit het gevoel asof ons op 'n slagveld was. Dit was stresvol, dit was fokken, o dit was ellendig. ”

Een someroggend is Bishara, saam met 'n span DFO- en RCMP -beamptes, gestuur om 'n inheemse vissersbemanning in hegtenis te neem weens oorbevissing. Dit was McDonald's -boot, 'n voorganger van die Franse Lilly.

Video wat deur die DFO geneem is, maak die voorval vas. DFO -bote omring McDonald's -boot by die kaai. Inheemse vissers staan ​​vas, gryp pale en houtplanke en durf die DFO aan om aan boord te gaan. Chaos breek uit: vuiste, vlermuise, pale word geswaai en mense aan weerskante val in die water.

'Ek was een van die wat in die water gegaan het', sê Bishara. Toe hy 'n jong inheemse visser gaan gryp, draai die bestuurder van die boot van Bishara paniekbevange, wat veroorsaak dat beide Bishara en die visser in die water val.

'En u weet wat interessant is, die jong man wat ek moes gryp, ons het mekaar gegryp, maar nie een van ons wou iets doen nie. Nie een van ons nie, ”sê Bishara. 'En ek dink, *dank God *. Dank God, want ek wou hom nie slaan nie, ek wou nie my geweer uittrek nie, ek wou niks van die dinge hoef te doen nie. Ek wou nie eers daar wees nie. ”

Die mense wat in hegtenis geneem is, is na die Digby RCMP -gebou geneem. Soos dinge bedaar het, het iemand koffie ingebring om te deel. Almal is 'n koppie aangebied, behalwe vir een persoon. As 'n leier en 'n aanhitser sou geen van die beamptes McDonald nader nie. Bishara kyk in die kamer waar McDonald sit, en voel jammer vir hom. Hy het sy middagete met vleis, kaas en pitabrood bymekaargemaak en die kamer binnegegaan. Hy het aan McDonald gesê wie hy is, dat hy Libanees is en dat hy voel dat hulle baie gemeen het dat sy gesin ook vooroordeel en rassisme hanteer het. McDonald het gesê dat hy saam met Libanese mense in die Verenigde State gewerk het en daarvan gehou het. Hulle het Bishara se middagete gedeel en het verder gesels.

Bishara, wat deel was van baie verhitte uitruilings, kon uit die eerste hand sien dat die DFO se strategie van intense handhawing nie werk nie. Hy het sy kommandoketting omseil en 'n brief direk aan die streeksdirekteur van DFO gestuur: Hy was nie meer bereid om sy ondergeskiktes aan daardie vlak van geweld en stres te onderwerp nie. Die streeksdirekteur het Bishara gevra wat hy dink hulle moet doen.

'' U begin van bo na onder, van onder af, 'sê Bishara aan die streeksdirekteur. 'Eerlik aan God, al waaraan ek kon dink, is wat my pa sou gesê het, so dit het ek vir hom gesê. Hy het gesê: 'Dink u ons kan iets doen?' Ek het gesê: 'Gee my 'n kans, en ons sal sien wat ons kan doen.'

Bishara het 'n rukkie later in aanraking gekom met McDonald, wat onlangs hoof van sy orkes geword het, die Sipekne'katik First Nation (toe bekend as Indian Brook). Hy het gevra of hulle kan ontmoet. McDonald het ingestem. Hulle ontmoet nie -amptelik dat Bishara geen 'groot koper' van DFO behels nie. Hy bied verskoning aan en vra of hulle weer kan begin. McDonald onthou dit as die enigste keer dat iemand van die DFO hom om verskoning gevra het.

Vanaf daardie vergadering het hulle ingestem om in kommunikasie te bly en om mekaar te laat weet as hulle hoor van spanning wat ontstaan. Hulle sou met hul onderskeie gemeenskappe praat en probeer kalmeer voordat hulle die potensiaal het om in geweld uit te breek.

Bishara glo vanweë die samewerking wat hulle tot stand gebring het, het die blatante minagting en disrespek tussen die gemeenskappe opgehou. Vir 'n lang tydperk het die rowwe waters bedaar, en die behoefte aan intensiewe handhawing het verdwyn.

Miskien sou DFO 'groot koper' hierdie afskakeling as 'n geleentheid gesien het om die harde werk van die grys gebied van die Hooggeregshof prakties te vorm. Dit was 'n kans na een voorspelbare krisis om uit te vind hoe om die volgende een te vermy. Maar die geleentheid was verspeel. McDonald en Bishara het oorgegaan uit hul leiersrolle. Hoe 'n "matige bestaan" presies lyk, bly ongedefinieerd.

As die verhouding tussen die gemeenskappe in die herfs van 2020 tot geweld en vernietiging terugkeer, sou dit vir Bishara soos 'n déjà vu gevoel het, as hy dit nie sien kom nie.

'Ongeveer sewe jaar gelede het ek by DFO begin kla dat dit gaan waai. En dit is presies wat gebeur het,' sê Bishara aan die einde van 2020.

Nadat hy die DFO verlaat het, het hy van die kantlyn af gekyk hoe dinge in 'n 'aaklige horingsnes' verander. Hy sê hy het gesien hoe DFO se gebrek aan optrede tot misbruik van die Marshall -besluit lei. Al hoe meer kreef is gevang sonder enige bestuursplan of bewaring, en beide inheemse en nie-inheemse spelers het geld ingekry.

"Nie-inheemse vissers was betrokke, kopers was nie betrokke nie, almal het geld verdien, dwelms was betrokke, georganiseerde misdaad was, god weet wat daarby betrokke is," sê Bishara.

Op die kaai waar McDonald dok, klim nie-inheemse vissers heen en weer van die kaai na hul bote, laai toerusting en maak herstelwerk ter voorbereiding van die opening van die seisoen. In November 2019 is hulle bereid om oor lewensbestaan ​​te hengel, solank hul name nie genoem word nie.

'Dan brand hulle my fokken boot. Ai man, hulle het my fokken boot gebrand. Ons het al hier ’n boot laat brand,” sê een man. 'Ek het dit alles gedoen, ek was in die media, ek het doodsdreigemente en telefoonoproepe gehad. Kom af, hulle het alles van my fokken boot gesteel. ”

Die spanning neem reeds toe en wys op waarheen hulle sal kom in die herfs van 2020. 'n Nuwe generasie vissers en vissersbeamptes moet nou oor dieselfde grys gebied onderhandel wat hul voorgangers eens hanteer het.

"Die senior adviseurs wat betrokke was, het afgetree," sê Bishara. "Die mense wat sedertdien in die visserye en oseane gekom het, het nie 'n band met die gemeenskappe nie. Hulle het nie 'n begrip nie. Hulle ken nie die vissery nie kultuur, ken hulle nie die visserybedryf nie. ”

Die wêreld het ook sedert 1999 verander. Die tegnologiese vooruitgang en politieke verskille van vandag kan die vlamme aanblaas. 'N Golf van regse populisme het oor die hele wêreld gespoel en rassistiese opinies word meer vryelik uitgespreek. Internetgroepe en sosiale media versprei oningeligte menings en verkeerde inligting, terwyl algoritmies saamgestelde inligtingstrome meedoënloos die vooroordele van mense versterk en mense polariseer. Die bereidwilligheid om mekaar se gemeenskappe en geskiedenis te verstaan, kan krimp, tesame met die middelpunt wat nodig is vir samewerking.

Nie-inheemse vissers word in die somer deur die DFO-regulasies na die kus gedwing, en kyk uit die werwe hoe inheemse vissers hul vangste haal. Sommige kan nie anders as om te voel dat hulle hulpeloos toekyk hoe geld uit hul eie sak gehaal word nie. Sommige beweer dat die speelveld nie regverdig is nie. Maar die grootste kommer is vir bewaring, die onderwerp het soveel gewig van die Hooggeregshof.

Omdat daar geen raamwerk ingestel is vir die bestaan ​​van visvang nie, is vangste onopgeteken. Niemand weet presies hoeveel kreef deur die jare uit die baai gehaal is nie en wat die gevolge op die lang termyn sal wees. Kommersiële kreeflandings in LFA 34 het afgeneem sedert die hoogtepunt van 2016, wat baie nie-inheemse vissers die skuld gegee het vir die toename in die buite-kommersiële seisoen wat hulle in die baai sien gebeur.

'Dit is 'n groot probleem; hulle neem meer as 'n bietjie van die voorraad. Mense weet nie wat hulle in die somer hier uitneem nie. Die vragmotors ry heeltyd verby. Ek sien die kratte, dit is nie goed nie, ”sê een visser. 'Dit kan nie die 12 maande per jaar neem nie.'


Die bioloog Aaron MacNeil, wat spesialiseer in visserye, bewaring en statistieke, sê dat dit normaal is om 'n mate van skommelinge in die getalle te sien. Alhoewel daar 'n afname was, sê hy dat dit nog nie 'n punt van kommer is nie.

"In St. Mary's Bay is die vangst per eenheidseenheid 82 persent," sê MacNeil in die herfs van 2020. Vang per eenheidspoging is 'n meting wat wetenskaplikes gebruik om die gesondheid van kreefbevolkings te beoordeel. In LFA 34 is dit gebaseer op vangste wat kommersiële vissers in hul logboeke aangeteken het. Dit beteken dat die kommersiële vissery verlede jaar 82 persent van sy gemiddelde jaarlikse vangs uit die baai ingebring het-gebaseer op 'n bewegende gemiddelde van 20 jaar.

Die selfgereguleerde matige lewensbestaan-vissery wat op 17 September 2020 deur Sipekne'katik First Nation geloods is, het 500 valstrikke gevang op sy hoogtepunt. Bioloë het gesê dat die relatief klein toename in lokvalle wat in die gebied gevang word, geen nadelige gevolge vir die kreefbevolking sal hê nie. MacNeil stem saam en sê dat dit maklik is om 500 velle te vergelyk met die byna 400 000 lokvalle wat kommersieel in LFA 34 gehengel word - selfs al word die 500 lokvalle in die kleiner gebied van St Mary's Bay gehengel.

Maar in die baai vind meer visvang plaas as net die lewensbestaan ​​van Sipekne'katik. Dit word gevang deur ander groepe, waaronder die nabygeleë Bear River en Acadia First Nations. Bykomend tot die bestaan ​​van visvang, visvang die groepe ook kos, sosiale en seremoniële lisensies.

'Ek dink deel van die verwarring hier is dat daar drie visserye in die baai is. Daar is die twee kommersiële visserye-inheems en nie-inheems-en dan is daar die kos, sosiale en seremoniële vissery, ”sê MacNeil.

Die FSC -vissery laat inheemse mense toe om te hengel om hulself, hul gesinne en hul gemeenskappe te voed. Anders as lewensbestaan ​​hengel, word dit erken deur DFO wat vislisensies uitreik en identifikasie -etikette aan die First Nation -gemeenskappe vaslê. Gewoonlik kan 'n individuele bandlid die hele jaar deur tot drie strikke vang. Maar die FSC -vissery is nie geskep om inkomste te bied aan inheemse vissers nie en kreef wat onder 'n FSC -lisensie gevang is, kan nie verkoop word nie.

'Ek hoor gereeld' jy het geen idee wat aangaan nie ',' sê MacNeil. 'Waaroor hulle praat, is die grootte van die kos, sosiale en seremoniële vissery. En hulle is reg, ek het geen inligting daaroor nie; al wat ek het, is die hoorsê van die nie-inheemse vissers dat daar iets in die orde van 8000 lokvalle in die baai is, en dat dit moontlik kan wees. Maar vanuit 'n wetenskaplike oogpunt is dit baie moeilik om daaroor kommentaar te lewer. ”

Volgens die DFO word tussen hulle en individuele Eerste Nasies perke op FSC -oes beding. Op 'n vraag of FSC -vangste deur die DFO -wetenskap aangeteken word, en of vissers logboeke gebruik om vangste aan te teken, soos in die kommersiële vissery, antwoord 'n woordvoerder van die DFO in 'n e -pos:

'Kommersiële logboeke word nie gebruik om FSC -landings aan te meld nie. DFO werk saam met inheemse gemeenskappe om hul FSC -visvangbehoeftes en -aktiwiteite te verstaan ​​en om vangmoniteringsdata te bekom. Die vereistes vir monitering en vangsverslaggewing word weerspieël in die voorwaardes van die lisensie. ”

MacNeil meen dat daar meer gedoen moet word om te verstaan ​​wat werklik in die baai aan die gang is.

'Daar is net soveel gerugte en nie genoeg wetenskap nie. Ek dink wat hierdie konflik beklemtoon, is dat ons baie min wetenskap aan die gang het vir ons belangrikste vissery, ”sê MacNeil. 'Ek dink die tyd het aangebreek dat DFO meer hulpbronne insit vir vissery-onafhanklike inligting oor kreef van Nova Scotia.

Meer wetenskap kan ook 'n paar van die talle bewerings wat vissers maak, bevestig of verwerp, soos dat St. Mary's Bay 'n kreefgloei is. 'N Teorie wat daarop dui dat kreef in die somermaande na die gebied migreer om te broei, word tans nie ondersteun (of afgemaak) deur data waarvan MacNeil weet nie.

Nog 'n minder gedeelde spanningspunt wat deur nie-inheemse vissers gevoel word, is dat die hoeveelheid kreef wat hulle vang gedurende die kommersiële seisoen daal. Vissers vang ongeveer vier tot vyf kilogram per trek gedurende die eerste paar weke van visvang, en binne ses tot agt weke daal dit tot een kilogram. Die belangrikste rede hiervoor is omdat die kreef al etlike maande nie gevang word nie, wat die bevolking die kans gee om te groei. En dit is logies: daar behoort meer kreef in die water te wees voordat die hengel begin, as na twee maande se hengel.

Maar dit beteken dat kommersiële vissers buite verhouding reken op die geld wat hulle verdien uit die hoër vangste wat aan die begin van die kommersiële seisoen geland is. Vissers wat baie belê is in die bedryf, met groot lenings met aggressiewe terugbetalingsvoorwaardes, vrees dat die visvang voor die seisoen wat hulle sien gebeur, hul verdienste besnoei en hul eie lewensbestaan ​​beïnvloed. Baie vissers sê dat dit goed gaan met die hengel van lewensbestaan, solank dit binne die kommersiële seisoen plaasvind.

David Bishara dink nie dat 'n aparte inheemse kommersiële vissery (soos die een wat Sipekne'katik First Nation in September bekend gestel het) die pad vorentoe is nie. Hy sê dat twee kommersiële visserye met verskillende seisoene 'n dubbele standaard skep wat nooit sal werk nie. Dit sal net tot meer spanning tussen die gemeenskappe lei en hy dink dinge gaan nog erger word.

Hy sê dat hy nie die regte van die inheemse bevolking betwis nie, maar dink dat daar 'n balans moet wees. Even though the DFO has so far failed miserably to meet the needs for Indigenous people, it’s still the DFO’s responsibility to step up and make a fishery that will work for everyone. He thinks if the government didn’t let things slide for so long the situation today could have been better.

"They've done an extremely poor job of managing it,” says Bishara. "It's just poor gutless bureaucrats and they’ve failed the rest of the country. The fishermen I know, on both sides, are good people and all want the same thing. they want a roof over their head, they want food, they want to share in the bounty, they want to provide for their families.”

But McDonald says Indigenous fishers will always need their own time to fish two months outside of the commercial season, away from non-Indigenous fishers will always be necessary. He says he has experienced harassment and vandalism of his gear even when he’s fished with a commercial licence during the regular season.

“They still cut your traps, they still ‘whoo whoo’ on the radio, they still cause shit at the wharf for being Indian, so either way it's very hard for us to fish amongst them,” says McDonald. “The prejudice is there, and it will always be there. You can't stop it.”

At the wharf, McDonald tries to maintain good relations by making it less obvious he’s been out fishing. When docked, all fishing gear is kept out of sight, to not rub it in that he’s fishing outside the commercial season. On this day last fall, it seems to be working.

“That green boat right there, he does everything like he’s supposed to. He was just here talking to me, I know him pretty good,” said another fisher. “He goes out once or twice a week. He could go out every day if he wanted to, but he doesn’t.”

“He don’t want to be mentioned and I don’t blame him. Keeps life simple for him,” says McDonald. “Let’s see if that single trap is there.” He steers his boat to what he calls his test trap, not too far from the wharf. Whether the trap is testing the lobster population or the DFO isn’t clear.

The deckhand spots the small buoy and points it out. “OK, good eye, good eye,” says McDonald. “The tide’s coming in too, so we’ll have to work fast.” The deckhand grabs the buoy from the water and wraps the rope it’s attached to around the wheel of the electric hauler. It pulls the line up with speed.

The trap emerges from the water. It appears to be in a state of decay, rusting and growing seaweed. About 10 lobsters are inside. “That’s a small catch, but this trap doesn’t fish well,” McDonald says. “It never did, that’s why we don’t care about it. They can take it if they want.”

The deckhand opens the hatch of the trap and quickly removes the lobsters, placing them in large plastic bins. The empty bait sack is replaced with a full one and the trap is dropped back into the water.

The lobsters are then measured, and the undersized juveniles are tossed back in the water. Female lobsters carrying eggs are v-notched and thrown back too. V-notching is a conservation technique used by lobster fishers—they cut a “V” shape into the lobster’s tail, harmless to the lobster—which notifies other fishers who might catch it later that it’s a fertile female who once carried eggs, and should be thrown back so it can continue to populate. Only the lobsters that are large enough, carry no eggs and are not v-notched are kept by McDonald and his deckhand. Rubber bands are put around their claws.

McDonald believes conservation is important. “There should be something put in place you know what I mean. A hundred percent, I believe that,” he says. But how could a livelihood fishery be managed, what would it look like? “It would look like the very first ones we did,” says McDonald. “I wrote them.”

  • In November 2019, McDonald is fishing 15 traps. Sipekne'katik's moderate livelihood fishery, launched in September 2020, allows up to 50 traps per boat.
  • Stefan Sinclair-Fortin

S et far back from the ocean is the small white bungalow where McDonald lives. Inside, he makes a cup of green tea and sits down at his kitchen table with his take-out lunch of fish and chips.

Beside him on the table is a case thick with paper. He starts to fish through the documents, pulling out management plans, commissioned aquaculture studies and correspondence letters between his band and the DFO dating back to 1997. “We were fishing under that prior to Marshall,” he says.

Before Marshall won his case in 1999, members of the Sipekne’katik First Nation, who were confident he would win, drafted their first management plan to deal with livelihood fishing. The plan included trap numbers per boat, boat sizes and the minimum size of a catchable lobster. It outlined how the plan would be enforced, and how the band would work with DFO to enforce it.

(In the fall of 2020, I asked McDonald about the Sipekne’katik’s management plan that is currently being used for their self-regulated fishery. He said it looks very similar to these plans drafted years ago.)

But after the Marshall ruling, the DFO never agreed to work with any of the proposed management plans, and no new government framework was created to address the need for livelihood fishing. Instead, DFO tried to absorb First Nation fishing into the existing commercial fishery. A controversial buyback program was created by the government, benefiting many non-Indigenous fishers: Commercial licences were bought back from retiring fishers, as well as their used gear, at inflated prices. The gear and licences, as well as money, were offered to the First Nations communities in the Maritimes, in exchange for signed agreements that they would fish under the DFO’s rules. Many communities that were strapped for cash jumped on the opportunity. But some, including the Sipekne’katik First Nation, refused to sign.

Eventually the government gave Sipekne’katik a relatively small number of commercial licences. These licences are owned communally and leased by the band to fishers per fishing season. Sometimes they are leased to non-Indigenous fishers, which has been a contentious issue within the band. Though this system does bring back revenue to the band, the limited number of licences, and high prices they’re leased for, limits access to individual band members and falls short of meeting everyone's needs.

C ommercially fished lobster traps need identification tags issued by the DFO to be attached to them. In November of 2019, McDonald fishes with no tags attached to his traps. Any traps without government-issued tags are un-authorized in the eyes of a DFO officer, as there has been no framework created to deal with livelihood fishing. (This year the Sipekne’katik First Nation has issued its own tags for its self-regulated fishery. But until it finds a place within the government’s fisheries act, their tags will remain un-authorized.)

If a DFO boat happens to find McDonald’s traps, they will be seized, and their catch dumped back into the water. If his traps are found by certain non-Indigenous fishers, the lines may be cut, making it very difficult for him to retrieve them from the ocean floor. If they are found by certain other Indigenous fishers, the catches may be robbed. “Sometimes we’re our worst enemies,” says McDonald.

So, to try and avoid all of this, McDonald’s buoys, which mark his traps, are small. They’re about the size of a softball and are dark in colour on the ocean’s surface they’re virtually impossible to see from a distance. Other than randomly running a boat into one, they can only be found through the markers on McDonald’s GPS.

As McDonald approaches the area where he has laid his second set of traps, there’s a problem—he can’t find his buoy. He circles the boat around. “We’re only at 17 fathoms, we should see it,” he says. Because his buoys are undersized, sometimes they become submerged by the bay’s massive tidal swings, as the strong currents can hold them down. He circles his boat around his GPS marker, positioning his boat broadside between the incoming tide and where the buoy is supposed to be. This is a technique that’s supposed to block the push of the current for a moment, allowing the buoy to pop up to the surface. But it doesn’t.

“The DFO could have cleaned me out,” he says. Giving up on the lost buoy, McDonald steers towards his final line of traps.

But again, there’s no sign of his buoy. “We should be right on top of it.” He circles his boat around, nothing. Then a second time, still nothing. “Get the grapple, let’s do this shit,” he says to his deckhand. The deckhand hauls out a heavy box. I ask what it is. “A lot of work, that’s what this is.” From the box he pulls out something that looks like a medieval weapon. It’s heavy and looks to be made of cast iron a cone, covered with hooks, about the length of a person’s forearm. Attached to a line, it’s dropped into the water and dragged across the bottom, about 20 fathoms down. McDonald is fishing for his own fishing gear.

Eventually the grapple catches something and the line becomes tight. It’s hauled up, and out of the depths comes a yellow trap in poor condition. Overgrown with seaweed, its line has been cut, but it’s not McDonald’s. Tangled up with the neglected trap is McDonald’s line, leading to the first of his 10 traps. “You see what we have to resort to, dragging this shit up!” The tangled mess of lines is sorted, and McDonald’s traps are hauled up one by one. The old trap is tossed back into the water. McDonald says that he doesn’t like the idea of adding more plastic into the ocean, but the old trap will create a small artificial reef, benefiting lobster and other sea life.

McDonald points to the buoy that was supposed to be on the surface marking his traps. It’s dark and small, not much larger than a clenched fist. One small part of the difficulties and dangerous tactics he has to endure, just to continue doing something he’s always had the right to do. “Cowboys and Indians, it’s the way it’s always been.”

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Mark and Julie Bennett, RV Love

Mark and Julie Bennett are authors of the bestselling book Living the RV Life – Your Ultimate Guide to Life on the Road, and co-creators of the RVLove blog and RV Success School and Hit the Road RV Summit

2020 was full of surprises and the year certainly shaped up differently to how we expected when it started. How 2021 will shake out is anyone’s guess, but here are some of our thoughts:

The 2021 Camping Season will be huge!

RV Shows – Quartzsite, AZ is going ahead in January, so is Florida, it seems. The California RV Show was permanently canceled. We do see RV shows happening around the country, regionally and locally, but don’t expect the attendance levels of years gone by. RVer buying practices have had to adapt, and online research and shopping still will be preferred. But people want to see RVs in person, which they may prefer do at local dealerships rather than big, crowded shows. We see more virtual events becoming accepted and ‘the norm’, in the future.

Campgrounds –. These have been overcrowded in many parts of the country, due to the influx of new RVers and increased preference for RV camping in general. Prices are going up which may deter some RVers and drive them to invest in off-grid systems with solar and batteries to avoid or reduce camping costs. We also predict some developers who previously focused on residential and commercial property will pivot to invest in building or improving more camping resorts around the country based on the demand.

RV Sales – Sales will continue steadily in 2021 but soften compared to 2020. We do see an increase in used RVs hitting the market by the fall for two reasons. One – as the pandemic concerns settle down and other forms of travel open up. And Two – many of those who jumped into RVing quickly without doing the proper research will come to realize they don’t want to deal with the hassles that come with RV ownership. The ongoing need for repairs and maintenance, plus the challenges of finding campground bookings and affordable storage, will be too much for some, and we see a glut of used RVs hitting the market within a year from now.

RV Rentals – Demand will remain very strong for the foreseeable future and be a big area of growth, especially as more used RVs come up for sale. More dealers will offer the option to rent. Many RVers will rent their RV to offset their costs, or even buy additional RVs, to get into the RV rental business, similar to how many homeowners got into the AirBnb business and bought more properties to capitalize on that trend.

RV Parts – With supply chain shortages being an issue across the board, the RV industry is feeling it too. We see the shortage of parts being an ongoing concern for RV manufacturers, RV repair shops, and RV owners alike until the supply chain catches up. This will cause additional frustrations for customers (especially newbies not used to this) who may experience extended delays while waiting for replacement parts. This may be the catalyst that sees more used RVs on the market as owners try to offload them.

RV Remote Workers – With more companies now seeing the benefits of a remote workforce, we believe many people will see an RV as an ideal way to travel while working full time, as we have done since 2014. There will be greater demands for RVs with a workspace or flex space, and people renovating RVs to suit their needs. RV manufacturers will (hopefully) recognize the need to create new floor plans and improved layouts to cater to this fast-growing market segment. Campgrounds may also seize the opportunity to upgrade their internet connectivity and even create a co-working room or hotspot style space for guests to work from during their stays.


Save money and avoid crowds

Prices for vacation rentals on Vrbo typically drop during shoulder season, the time period after Labor Day and before the holiday travel season. Families not tied to strict in-person school or work commitments can benefit from fewer crowds and lower prices by choosing later travel dates.

For example, you can find a drop of at least 20% in average nightly rates for vacation homes in popular destinations like Cape Cod, Massachusetts Cape May, New Jersey and Ocean City, Maryland, in August through October compared to prime summer travel dates.


Review: Lobster with a view in Santa Monica

You’d think that with all of Santa Monica’s coastline, there would be more restaurants right on the beach, places where you could enjoy local seafood and revel in the landscape of sea and sand. Not counting hotel dining rooms, the list is far too short. Even then, most are across Ocean Boulevard on the land side of the street. And with square footage prices so high, few independent restaurateurs or chefs have the means to own a restaurant on the shore.

When the Lobster opened in 1999, right by the water and the Santa Monica Pier, it was a very big deal. Allison Thurber, who had headed up the kitchen at Water Grill, was opening chef. The fact that she’s allergic to lobster didn’t seem to phase anyone involved. (File that fact away for your next foodie trivia contest.) And feeding the hordes who descended on the restaurant for their lobster fix was no problem for this consummate professional. The food itself got mixed reviews, but the crustaceans were always impeccably fresh and cooked with skill and attention.

Thurber moved on last year, and in November the restaurant recruited another Water Grill alum as chef. Collin Crannell was chef de cuisine during Michael Cimarusti’s tenure there. Since then, he’s cooked around, most recently at La Botte for the last three years, and he brings a global spin to the seafood menu at the Lobster. For Crannell, 40, the Santa Monica seafood restaurant is a big step up in terms of action. It’s not Gladstone’s, but close — always packed and open seven days a week. Running this kitchen is like running the commissary for a small army. And the kitchen sometimes falters.

Set beside the entrance to the Santa Monica Pier, the Lobster is a tourist magnet of the first degree. It had its beginnings in 1923 as the Lobster Shack, a tiny place just 900 square feet. The glory days were the ‘50s and ‘60s, after Mateo Castillo, a former dishwasher, became the owner. Shuttered in 1985, the shack sat empty until a group of a dozen investors, including the Roberts family behind Topanga Fish Market and Reel Inn, put together a partnership to secure the site and build a bigger, brasher seafood restaurant. The new Lobster was built on two levels cantilevered out to take in a 180-degree view of sea and sand.

It sounds very like the Brothers Grimm fairy tale “The Fisherman and His Wife,” in which the greedy wife insists her husband ask an enchanted flounder to give them a cottage in place of their little shack. Not content with that, she wanted a stone palace instead, then to be king, emperor, pope, God … we all know how that ended. Not well.

The Lobster, though, is thriving in its seaside digs. Even in this difficult economy. The restaurant is the place for live Maine — or, in season, spiny — lobster consumed within shouting distance of the ocean. With its updated menu, the Lobster isn’t stuck in the past. No foams or gelees or liquid nitrogen fogs here. Crannell’s cooking is more about spices and casual collisions of ingredients, not all of them successful. The simpler the preparation, the better the execution. With a restaurant this busy, you can’t get that fussy.

The customers arrive in waves, just like the surf outside. Hungry, boisterous, with cocktails and drinks in the bar preceding lunch or dinner. By the time guests get to the table, they want their food now. And the kitchen gives it to them. If you’re of the leisurely dining persuasion, a meal here can feel rushed, as if the servers, invariably friendly and happy to see you, are intent on turning the tables as fast as possible. For many guests, the ones who write to me to complain about slow service everywhere, this would be a plus. If you prefer to take your time, say so upfront.

Let’s cut to the chase: the lobster. Steamed live Maine lobster, starting at 11/2 pounds and priced by the pound (right now $24), arrives langorous and lovely on a plate with a crock of drawn butter and emerald sauteed Swiss chard. The green’s bright earthiness is terrific against the sweetness of the lobster. A 21/2 pound grilled Maine lobster slathered in olive oil and herbs is perfectly cooked, even the big meaty claws. The kitchen tends to have a heavy hand, though. It’s tasty, but a bit greasy.

In season, the restaurant is one of the few to offer spiny lobsters, a sublime and truly local treat. They’re tricky to cook, though, and my 2-pounder ($41 per pound) one night unfortunately is overcooked. Still, the fact that Crannell is offering these local crustaceans is something to celebrate.

Of course, you can get fine oysters on the half shell, usually Kumamotos and Malpeques. A delicious bay scallop ceviche with kumquats piled into a glass comes with handsome hand-made crackers sprinkled with caraway seeds. The crackers are oddly sweet, though. Wild Mexican shrimp cocktail is excellent, with a punchy cocktail sauce. Calamari are crispy as advertised, ready and willing to be dipped in an anchovy-spiked aioli.

Tempura shrimp, though, hardly warrants the name tempura. The heavy batter is more like something you’d put on a corn dog, but you’ll find yourself dragging the shrimp through a sweet chile-spiked sauce for more. Yellowfin tuna crudo lags in execution too. The poor fish is so overwhelmed with soy sauce you can’t taste the fish. An excess of capers doesn’t help either. And trendy Kurobuta pork belly paired with New Bedford day boat scallops could have worked if the sherry hoisin sauce hadn’t been so strong.

Aside from seafood, you might want to start with the rough-hewn house-made hummus served with triangles of grilled warm pita. To make it relevant for a seafood restaurant, I guess, it’s piled with rosy rock shrimp, which are more a distraction than an addition. Crab cake comes with a vibrant Thai slaw: The crab cake itself is dull with the texture of sawdust. With the appetizers, it’s up, down, up, down.

If you’re not having lobster, chances are you’re having fish. And that has its ups and downs too. Grilled wild New Bedford striped bass is a fine piece of fish, surrounded by some squid, rock shrimp and Manila clams — all good except for the cannellini beans that are stiff as spackle where they should be loose. Pacific sole in a simple preparation of butter, lemon, capers and artichokes is too rubbery to produce the effect Dover sole had on Julia Child the first time she tasted it in France. At least in the movie, she groaned in pleasure as her husband patted her on the knee, saying, “I know, I know,” soothingly.

Barramundi is overcooked too. It’s a good idea to specify medium-rare when you order. For me, the tendency to overcook means the food isn’t always as carefully prepared as it would be if the kitchen were in less of a hurry.

The wine list is limited, not at all the huge compendium at Water Grill or Providence, but it has some decent bottles to go with your lobster that won’t break the bank, such as the Reverdy Sancerre or Martin Codax Albarino. For creamy California Chardonnays, like Flowers or Patz & Hall, the price is higher.

Be aware that the restaurant is punishingly loud, and it doesn’t seem to make much difference where you sit. Going at an hour when it’s less busy is an option. Or else taking one of the handful of seats at the small outdoor bar facing the palisades where M.F.K. Fisher and her family camped in the ‘30s.

Desserts don’t make much of an impression other than that they’re generally very sweet. Blackberry cobbler served warm with pecan streusel and a ball of ice cream on top is pleasant enough. A lemon pudding cake is tender and light.

Crannell has taken the Lobster in hand with an updated menu, but getting the kitchen at this busy restaurant to perform consistently is a lot harder than writing a new menu. Still, for a tourist restaurant on the beach, it’s better than most. And when you can have a decent lobster looking out at the view, it’s something. It just could be so much more.

Gradering: One and a half stars

Plek: 1602 Ocean Ave. (next to the entrance to the Santa Monica Pier), Santa Monica (310) 458-9294 https://www.thelobster.com.

Prys: Oyster and shellfish, $14.50 to $60 appetizers, $8 to $16 soup and salad, $9 to $23 lobster and shellfish, $16 to $46 and from $24 to $41 per pound finfish and other entrees, $20 to $55 sides, $4 to $7 desserts, $9. Corkage fee, $25.

Besonderhede: Open 11:30 a.m. to 10 p.m. Sunday to Thursday 11:30 a.m. to 11 p.m. Vrydag en Saterdag. Volle balk. Valet parking, $5.50 for the first three hours, $7.50 thereafter, with validation.

Die gradering is gebaseer op kos, diens en atmosfeer, met die prys in ag geneem ten opsigte van kwaliteit. Four stars: Outstanding on every level. Three stars: Excellent. Two stars: Very good. One star: Good. Geen ster nie: Swak tot bevredigend.

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S. Irene Virbila is 'n voormalige restaurantkritikus en wynrubriekskrywer van die Los Angeles Times. Sy het in 2015 vertrek.

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THE RISE & FALL OF A STAR / How the king of California Cuisine lost an empire

4 of 12 Tower used San Francisco's social elite to build a steady clientele for Stars. His engaging and sophisticated mannercharmed the likes of Claudia de Quesada and Susan Brubaker in 1995. Show More Show Less

5 of 12 STARS WORLD-WIDE: Above, waiters whisk food to diners at Stars Manila, adorned with photographs from Stars in San Francisco. Special to the Chronicle by Chito Vecina Show More Show Less

7 of 12 Jeremiah Tower at his newly opened STARS restaurant in 1984. Chronicle File Photo by Pete Breinig Show More Show Less

8 of 12 THROUGH THE YEARS: Jeremiah Tower in his young chef days Show More Show Less

10 of 12 SOCIETY'S DARLING: Tower used San Francisco's social elite to build a steady clientele for Stars. Chronicle Photo by John O'Hara Show More Show Less

11 of 12 Jeremiah Tower's new restaurant,Stars, in Manila, Philippines. PHOTO BY MELVYN CALDERON-AsiaPix/FOR THE CHRONICLE Show More Show Less

ON September 6, the last night of its life, Stars could not hide its age.

The San Francisco restaurant no longer glowed with the light of chandeliers and Tiffany lamps. Dirt showed on the beige stars woven into the forest green carpet. Hundreds of photographs of the famous, who for 15 years had made Stars the site of their own fabulous dinner party, had been stripped from the walls.

And in the basement, stuffed into a box with pictures of Willie Brown, David Letterman and Tommy Tune, was a white chef's jacket embroidered with the name Jeremiah Tower.

Stars, Tower's shrine to the sexy rebirth of American regional cooking and all things glittery, had fallen. And the man who once reigned as California's most creative chef and presided over the biggest party in San Francisco during the height of the greed-is-good '80s had closed up shop and left town. It will be reincarnated on Friday, with the same name. But it will be an entirely different restaurant. And Tower won't be part of it.

When Stars opened in 1984 on a desolate alley near the Civic Center, socialite Denise Hale and the rest of the city's social cream led the charge. The stars of theater, music and politics weren't far behind. Mikhail Gorbachev and Danny Kaye. Joe DiMaggio and Rudolph Nureyev. Luciano Pavarotti and Lauren Hutton. Danielle Steel and Liza Minnelli. They came to eat Tower's version of the new California cuisine, marvel at his brilliant sauces and giggle over late-night hot dogs served with sauerkraut and Champagne.

The wait staff was regarded as the best in the city. Chefs from all over made pilgrimages to sit near the open kitchen and simply watch the wild Tower-led crew of hot young cooks.

But Stars shone brightest in its dining room, where Tower floated from table to bar to kitchen and back again, a flute of Champagne in hand. Tall and handsome, he dressed in European suits or chef's whites, with a perfect white apron draped down to his ankles. He possessed an impeccable palate, an appetite for alcohol, a famous temper and a rich cache of stories from his travels around the world.

With only a few words spoken with an accent that was a patchwork of time spent in Great Britain, Australia and his native East Coast, he could make diners who stumbled into his charming web feel as though they were the most important people in the room. And the next day, he might not know their names.

"Stars had a comfortable feeling but at the same time was elegant," says Hale, who popularized the concept of the A List and was named one of the country's most influential women by Vanity Fair in 1998. "It was like Le Cirque. Once you went to Jeremiah, you knew you were with someone who really knew how to do it. It's very simple, really. It was the place."

From his early days in the 1970s as the chef at Chez Panisse to his rise to the prestigious James Beard Foundation's Chef of the Year in 1996, Tower became a California food legend. He popularized the American brasserie and is one of a handful of chefs who helped Americans fall back in love with their own food.

ONE LAST NIGHT

Goat cheese on salad, salsa on fish, individual thin-crusted pizzas -- Tower had a part in creating them and then turning them into staples in America's restaurants. He excelled at juxtaposing flavors. He insisted on ingredients that were the best, the freshest and the most local, and served them with a strong dash of sass.

But on this night in early September, the night of the Last Supper, the star had clearly faded. A sprinkling of the socially important had shown up, as much to offer support for the new restaurant that would emerge in the space in October as to grab one more hit of the old Stars magic.

The menu featured Stars standards -- roast pork with mango salsa steak tartare with ancho chile puree cornmeal blinis with lobster and caviar and enough butter, as Tower always urged, to drip down diners' wrists.

There were former cooks and waiters, many of whom credit their cars and condos to the $400 a night they made in Stars' heyday. Many describe their tenure at Stars as the best and the worst time of their lives.

"Maybe 80 percent of the city's best chefs today went through the Stars kitchen. Everyone wanted to get it on their resume," says BayTV chef Joey Altman, who Tower fired in 1986 and who has since gone on to open Wild Hare in Menlo Park. "But it was kind of like working for an alcoholic parent. One day was Christmas and the next day you were banished from the kitchen."

In the crowd was Mark Franz, Tower's protege who essentially ran the Stars kitchen for a decade but who left in a bitter break about three years ago to open the well-received Farallon. He took with him several other former Stars staffers, including pastry chef Emily Luchetti. He loves the man he calls his brother, even though the two didn't speak for two years after Franz left.

"In those days you could break the rules," Franz says. "JT loved to use local stuff and put it together in a classical way. We used all these products people had never heard of but were right in their backyard."

Franz also remembers working for a man who could be unpredictable, moody and an unrelenting perfectionist.

"You never knew if you were going to get your ass kicked or what. You could really get roasted for doing the wrong thing," Franz says. "But he was always a gentleman to me."

On the last night of Stars life, with the walls empty and the grand piano quiet, Franz shook his head. "It's like being at your ex-wife's funeral."

Of course, the evening's buzz centered on whether Tower, 57, would show. It wouldn't be unlike him. He had been in San Francisco a month earlier. He stayed at a Nob Hill hotel, helped a former chef celebrate her 50th birthday, did a little business and gathered his collection of photographs.

But he would not be at his restaurant's Last Supper. And by midnight, the new owners began to dismantle Tower's vehicle to fame and a place that had changed the way America cooks.

Tower, who declined repeated requests from The Chronicle for an interview, was 6,000 miles away in Manila. A new set of investors had opened a Stars there in April. Having sold off all of his empire, Tower is banished from connecting his name to Stars restaurants anywhere in the world save the Philippines.

THE ARCHITECT IN BERKELEY

The way Tower told it in interviews, he walked into the Chez Panisse kitchen in 1972 and was asked to improve the nightly soup. He added white wine, cream and salt. Owner Alice Waters and her crew were floored.

"I don't recall if it was a soup or what he did," Waters said recently when asked about what made her hire him. "He had a lot of confidence and I had none. He would just come in and do something wonderful every day. I needed that."

Cut off from his family's financial support and armed with a masters' degree in architecture from Harvard University and a vague plan to find work doing underwater design in Hawaii, Tower landed in California. He decided to apply for a job at Chez Panisse because he was broke and because that was where he had once eaten a memorable berry tart. His previous cooking experience amounted to a sandwich-making stint in a London pub.

Years later, people still debate whether Tower or Waters invented California cuisine. Likely it was a synergy of talent colored by the state of California's food in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Laura Chenel was starting to market her goat cheese. Bruce Aidells was showing up at the back doors of restaurants selling andouille sausage he'd made in his kitchen.

Demurs Waters: "It was just a matter of very good timing."

Still, a rivalry emerged. Adding to it were the breakups of their relationships, both intimate and professional, which weren't pretty, according to several people who were around the pair at the time.

Although he had no formal training, Tower's perspective on excellent food had been well formed early on. Born in Stamford, Conn., he and his brother and sister followed his parents around the world -- his father was an international salesman of movie sound equipment.

Tower was weaned in the dining rooms of cruise ships and hotels, and later on fine old wines and caviar-covered blinis served at his Russian uncle's apartment in Washington, D.C. In college, he charmed his roommates with chicken livers sauteed in Madeira and multi-course dinners made with whatever was on hand.

In the early Chez Panisse days, when a three-course dinner cost less than $8, Tower's confidence, sometimes more than the food itself, carried the day.

"I remember one time he made salt cod -- grilled salt cod, I think," Waters says. "I don't even think he soaked it. I said, 'Jeremiah, I think it's too salty. How can I sell it in the dining room?' He said, 'Alice, tell them to drink lots of red wine with it. It's great. It's what they do in Provence.' "

She did and people ate it up.

"You do have to have that kind of confidence to be a chef," she says. "Many, many times I totally believed and never questioned."

Everyone fell in love with him, recalls Gourmet editor and former New York Times restaurant critic Ruth Riechl, who worked in Berkeley during the 1970s and early '80s.

"In Berkeley then there was this feeling like, 'Oh, it's OK' and that was good enough. With him, OK wasn't good enough. He brought this amazing style into the community and everybody -- men and women -- were in love with him. He was like a character out of a movie. We were all walking around in Birkenstocks and here comes this English gentleman."

Tower left Chez Panisse in 1978. Around that time, Waters had helped arrange a dinner for James Beard in Big Sur. One of Tower's courses, recalls Chronicle columnist and former Beard assistant Marion Cunningham, was simply a big, black truffle presented to every diner on a white plate. Dessert was tangerine sorbet served in hollowed out tangerines that hung from a live tree.

After the event, Waters wrote Tower a letter praising his skills and admiring his person. It was, she says, a love letter. Tower would later frame it and hang it in Stars.

"(It was) a little bit of malicious vengeance," he would tell a reporter shortly after Stars opened. "People can see in her own handwriting just who is whose disciple."

TOWER TAKES ON THE CITY

Tower left Chez Panisse and landed at the Balboa Cafe, owned by Cathe and Doyle Moon. The Moons, who are now out of the San Francisco restaurant business, gave Tower the Balboa as a sort of trial for what would become his first national, high-profile chef job at the Santa Fe Bar and Grill.

But neither the Balboa nor the Santa Fe were enough. In July 1984, Tower and the Moons opened Stars. Big, elegant, fun and lively, Stars produced the city's cutting-edge food. Tower's own sense of culinary style, polished at the hand of his mentor, French chef Richard Olney, was at its pinnacle.

"When he first conceived of Stars, his model was probably '21' in New York," says Laurance deVries, Stars' first general manager. "He had people who knew San Francisco society working with him."

In a recent interview, deVries said the last time he saw Tower was in court. Neither side would discuss the case, and deVries would only say that he has been estranged for 12 years from a man he called "ruthless."

Tower is no stranger to lawsuits. In fact, he might be one of the most deposed chefs in the country.

He ended his relationship with the Moons in court in 1988. After leaving the Santa Fe in 1986, complaining publicly about how the Moons were handling things, the relationship quickly deteriorated. It appeared that Stars might have to be sold to satisfy both partners, but after a protracted battle, Tower kept the restaurant by offering the Moons $1.35 million. The Moons countered with an ill-fated suit challenging Tower's management of Stars. In an interview at the time, he called himself "the black widow spider of partners," and when it was all over, Tower celebrated by buying a BMW motorcycle.

But other lawsuits followed. A waiter who had contracted AIDS sued Tower and won $30,000 in 1993 after claiming Tower had fired him because of his condition. Tower, who would regularly participate in AIDS fund-raisers as well as other charity events, claimed in court he didn't know the waiter had AIDS. Tower landed in court again over the name of Speedo 690, a short-lived restaurant he opened in 1989.

The end of the 1980s marked the beginning of what would be a flurry of expansions and closures of Stars and its offshoots.

By that time, some could argue that Tower had become the nation's first true celebrity chef. He was a subject of a $100 million ad campaign that profiled Dewars scotch drinkers. Next to an image of Tower wearing a tuxedo and a three-quarter grin, the copy proclaimed "Aristocrat, confident and a self-described monarchist."

But 1989 was also the year the first cracks began to appear in the Stars empire.

Franz, who left in a bitter break-up with Tower in 1996, says Tower himself traced it to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Overnight, the bustling Civic Center area turned into a near ghost town. Stars went from serving 250 lunches a day to almost zero. Franz says Tower told him, "Mark, this is kind of the beginning of the end."

DECONSTRUCTING TOWER

Other factors were also conspiring to end Tower's Stars empire. The high-rolling '80s morphed into the recession of the early 1990s. The era of the big expense account and fashionable two-martini power lunch was over. And, whether due to his duties as a celebrity chef or his own disinterest, he spent less and less time at Stars. Reviews show the food suffered, prices went up and people who came expecting to see the star of Stars left disappointed and didn't return.

Tower began to spend more time with his new romantic partner, Arthur Gallego, and hired him as his public relations manager. At the same time, Tower was selling off pieces of the Stars name, gathering more investors and partners and expanding faster than prudence might have warranted. A string of operations like StarBake bakery, StarMart take-out and cookware shop, a venture in Hong Kong and Stars restaurants in Singapore, Palo Alto and Oakville came and went.

In 1996, Tower was named Chef of the Year by the New York-based James Beard Foundation -- an honor that had California's food elite scratching their heads. By that time, the Stars empire had all but crumbled.

By 1998, Stars San Francisco was losing $1 million a year, according to Gallego, who is now in New York.

That year, to unload a flood of debts and satisfy a string of investors, Tower signed away ownership of the trademarked Stars name and its concept to San Francisco businessman Andrew Yap. Tower's role was reduced to marketing and creative consultant, says Stanley Morris, managing partner of the group that now owns every Stars except the one in Manila.

After a year that saw the opening of a new Stars in Seattle, Tower and the company that now owned his restaurants severed their relationship.

Gallego, who was with Stars until 1997, says he still sees and talks with Tower. Like some who were close to Tower, Gallego remains one of his great defenders. He says that between the lawsuit with the Moons, the earthquake and the simple fact that the energy Tower put into Stars could not be sustained forever, Stars faded. Criticism of Tower's business practices and personal style didn't help.

"All we do in this society is promote and ask people to be confident and magnetic and outspoken and when we finally encounter someone who is, we shoot them down," Gallego said. "Ek dink daar was baie jaloesie." Waar laat dit Tower in die kookkunsgeskiedenis van Amerika? Aan die een kant is afvalliges soos Mimi Sheraton, 'n voormalige voedselkritikus van die New York Times wat nou vir tydskrifte soos Vanity Fair skryf. 'Ek is net nie bewus van hom as 'n innoveerder met 'n landwye invloed nie. moenie glo nie, behalwe vir die mees toegewyde eetlustiges en diegene wat baie van die Kaliforniese kombuis hou, sou hulle selfs sy naam ken. "

DIE SLOT HOOFSTUK

Maar sjefs soos Bizou se Loretta Keller, 'n veteraan uit die Stars -kombuis, wat hom twee keer gevoed het tydens sy laaste reis na San Francisco, sê Tower se kos bly.

"Sommige van sy geregte is so briljant dat ek nooit moeg word daarvoor nie. Daar is 'n skottel gegrilde vye met prosciutto, arugula en bessievinaigrette. Ek sit munt -mascarpone in elke vy en drup die vinaigrette daaroor. Dit is regtig 'n JT -gereg . "

Hy het een van die merkwaardigste herinneringe aan geure wat sy nog ooit teëgekom het, sê sy. "En hy het hierdie soort onvermoeide kreatiwiteit gehad wat uiteindelik aangevoer kan word as sy afsterwe. Hy kon nooit goed genoeg met rus laat nie."

Maar soos soveel van Tower se voormalige kollegas, sê Keller dat Tower 'beledigend en ongevoelig' kan wees. En hy gee nie veel om of hy brûe na sy verlede ongeskonde laat nie. "Hy het 'n arrogansie oor hom in persoonlike verhoudings en plekke. As hy dit eers gedoen het, het hy dit gedoen."