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Hoe om suur biere te waardeer

Hoe om suur biere te waardeer



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As vlak II Gesertifiseerde Cicerone en veronderstelde 'bierkenner', kry ek 'n vreemde voorkoms van biergeeks as ek erken dat ek nog nooit suur biere geniet het nie. Vir hulle laat dit my lyk soos die bierekwivalent van Peter Griffin. Die waarheid is dat ek gesukkel het om suur ten volle te waardeer en al lankal 'n manier soek om die kompleksiteit daarvan beter te verstaan. Tik die sesgang New Belgium Creator's Dinner by Die kombuis Denver.

Die haak

Hierdie geleentheid het bier uit die Lips of Faith -reeks gekombineer met 'n spesiaal gemaakte geregte. Sour het die reputasie dat dit wonderlik is met kos, so ek het gedink dat dit 'n perfekte manier sou wees om dit te verken. Die werklik unieke deel van die aand was egter dat die werklike New Belgium -brouer wat elke bier bedink en geskep het, dit sou aanbied en die storie daarvan sou vertel. Ek sou 'n werklike gids hê waarna ek moet kyk terwyl ons elke bier proe! Watter beter arena om 'n suur epifanie te beleef?

Die skare

Chef de cuisine Dennis Phelps en sy span het 'n ongelooflike vars en unieke spyskaart saamgestel wat in 'n gesinsstyl bedien is, en dit met elke kombinasie uit die park geslaan. Maar beter as wat die kos sou sien Nuwe België Kim Jordan, uitvoerende hoof, broumeester Peter Bouckaert, spesialiste in houtbier Eric en Lauren Salazar, assistent -broumeester Grady Hull, en Elysian Brewing -eienaar Dick Cantwell, almal in dieselfde kamer, en maak om die beurt hul harte oop oor hul liefde. Roosters was dikwels emosioneel, aangesien elkeen hul bier -inspirasie bespreek het. Dit het soos 'n troue gevoel-al was dit 'n bier geweek.

Die bier

Met die skeppers wat die voortou neem, kan ek waarlik sê dat ek 'n nuwe waardering en liefde vir suur bier gekry het. In die verlede het ek gevind dat hulle pikant en eendimensioneel is. Dit was nie die geval met die aanbiedinge van New Belgium nie. Almal het die verwagte tert aan die voorkant beet, maar onthul toe fantastiese bykomende lae toe hulle oopgaan. Kick, geskep deur Jordan en Cantwell, bevat wenke van pampoen en bosbessie. Bouckhardt se La Folie het tertkers en houtnote gehad en Eric Salazar se Eric's Ale proe na wit vrugte, perskes en 'n bietjie swartpeper.

My gunsteling bier van die tros was Lauren Salazar se Le Terroir, 'n droë hoed wat met vate verouder is, wat moontlik die beste geur gehad het van enige bier wat ek nog ooit gesnuif het: vol appelkose, tropiese vrugte, hoenderhout en muf tart, met 'n aangename geur. Phelps se eendkonfyt met sampioene en appelkoosmosterd was ook my gunsteling van die aand - soveel dat ek nog die smaak kan onthou.

N gesin

Ek het nie een persoon in die kamer geken nie, maar te midde van al die omhelsing en warm gevoelens wat tussen die New Belgium -familie gewissel is, het ek my tuis gevoel. Verskeie van ons het pret gehad om notas te vergelyk, asook om oohs en aahs te deel na elke happie en teug. Die suurheid van suurbiere word geneig om sag te word met vetterige of ryk kos, en wat u oorbly, is vrugte-, hout- en speserynuans wat wonderlik is. Ek is seker dat die brouers opgewonde was om te sien hoe baie mense die vrugte van hul harde werk geniet.

'N Bekeerling

Die aandete het my tot die suur kant verander, en nie net omdat ek die siel van hierdie biere deur die brouers se oë kon sien nie. Hulle is uitdagend, kompleks en vra aandag, maar is verdomde fyn biere. Lauren Salazar het hulle 'geskenke uit die verlede' genoem, aangesien dit die hoogtepunt en voortsetting is van eeue se ou brou -tradisies.

Elke keer as ek een van hierdie biere drink, dink ek aan die verhale wat gedeel is oor die tyd, sorg en geduld wat nodig is om suurbiere goed te brou. Ek sal dink aan die voorkoms van Eric Salazar se gesig toe hy sy bier voorhou asof dit 'n stuk van hom was. Trouens, elke keer as ek 'n bier drink, sal ek nadink oor wat die verhaal kan wees en watter liefde en trots dit kan bevat. Ek moedig almal aan om dieselfde te doen, aangesien bier op hierdie manier baie interessanter word. Dankie aan New Belgium en The Kitchen dat hulle almal 'n blik op die siel van jou skatte gegee het.

- Dan Imdieke, The Drink Nation

Meer uit The Drink Nation:

Cayman Jack Margarita: Maklike tropiese verversing in 'n fles
Bierresensie: Middagete van Maine Beer Company
Wynkoop om 'Bulls' Balls' -bier vry te stel in blikkies landswyd


Blokrede: Toegang uit u omgewing is tydelik beperk om veiligheidsredes.
Tyd: Vrydag, 21 Mei 2021 12:21:09 GMT

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Word Funky

Dit is nie elke dag dat u iemand ontmoet met die postitel "Funk Master" nie. Maar vir Patrick Howell, wat aan die hoof staan ​​van die produksie -fasiliteit vir suurbier, bekend as die 'Funk Lab' in Burlington, Ont., Is die rol iets wat hy baie ernstig opneem.

"Die span wat ons by die Funk Lab opgebou het, is klein, kreatief en uiters bekwaam," sê Howell, 'n gegradueerde van die gesogte meestersgraad in wetenskap, brou en distilleerkursus aan die Heriot-Watt Universiteit in Skotland.

Howell en sy stewige groep brouers het "geëksperimenteer, misluk en saam behaal gedurende die lewensduur van die fasiliteit."

'Ek is baie trots op my span en wat ons die afgelope paar jaar vermag het,' sê hy. Gemiddeld kan die Funk Lab gedurende die somerseisoen meer as 40 000 liter suur bier per maand brou.

Nickel Brook, wat in 2005 gestig is, was een van die toonaangewende spelers in die handwerkbierbeweging in Ontario. Die brouery produseer 'n verskeidenheid seisoenale en spesiale bier en volg die eenvoudige leuse: "bier, tot 'n wetenskap."

In 2016 het die onderneming sy oorspronklike brouery omskep in 'n fasiliteit wat uitsluitlik toegewy is aan suurbiere met klein hoeveelhede. Die grootste in sy soort in Kanada, die Funk Lab, is die tuiste van 'n massiewe vate -program waar bier in 400 verskillende soorte whisky en wynvate verouder word vir ekstra diepte en kompleksiteit. Nickel Brook's Raspberry Uber, 'n Weisse-bier in Berliner-styl wat 'n halwe pond frambose vir elke liter bier gebruik, is die gewildste skepping wat tot dusver uit die laboratorium gekom het.

Suur bier het die afgelope paar jaar gewild geword - hulle is deesdae alomteenwoordig in restaurant- en kroegspyskaarte - maar hulle is nie 'n nuweling in die biertoneel nie.

"Dit is belangrik om te weet dat daar niks nuuts is aan die idee van 'n suur bier nie," sê Luke Pestl, medestigter van die Bellwoods-brouery in Toronto.

Voor die moderne verkoeling en belangrike vooruitgang in die mikrobiese wetenskap, sou die meeste bier in verskillende mate deur suurproduserende bakterieë beïnvloed gewees het, wat uiteindelik skep wat ons nou suurbier noem. "Met die toename in ambagsbier en klein hoeveelhede produksie," sê Pestl, "leer mense weer hierdie diverse bierfamilie waardeer."

Wat presies maak 'n suur bier uniek? Die styl wat ons vandag geniet, is in die 19de eeu in België vervolmaak. Dit gebruik bakterieë en giste wat natuurlik voorkom, insluitend Lactobacillus, Pediococcus en Brettanomyces (bekend as "Brett") wat toevallig in die brouery dryf of in die brou -toerusting woon. Vandag is sommige van die oudste Belgiese brouerye beroemd omdat hulle nie stof of selfs spinnerakke uit die brouarea verwyder het nie, uit vrees vir die versteuring van natuurlike kolonies of mikro-organismes wat gesogte smaakprofiele verleen.

Hierdie giste en bakterieë is die geheim van suur bier. Dit dra by tot 'n tikkie tart, soortgelyk aan suurkool of jogurt, sowel as kenmerkende funky geure en aromas, soms in vergelyking met muwwe leer, perdekombers en selfs nat hond. Natuurlik suur vrugte - dink kersies, perskes en bessies - kan nog 'n laag interessante suur tint by die mengsel voeg.

As u vandag 'n suur bier koop, koop u gewoonlik 'n ketel suur of 'n tradisionele suur of wilde bier.

Ketelsuur is goedkoop, vinnig en relatief maklik om te maak en is verantwoordelik vir die indrukwekkende groei in die suurbierbedryf. Soos die naam aandui, vind versuring nie plaas in 'n vat nie, maar in 'n ketel en die gis of bakterieë word ingebring.

Aan die ander kant word 'n tradisionele suur- of wildebier geproduseer deur 'n proses genaamd 'gemengde fermentasie', wat 'n kombinasie van konvensionele en wilde giste gebruik.

Hierdie bierstyl, wat 'n lang en ryk geskiedenis het, neem maande of jare om te voltooi en kan onvoorspelbaar wees. Dit bied 'n ongelooflike genuanseerde en komplekse profiel buite die omvang van baie ketelsuur en word gevolglik teen 'n hoër prys verkoop.

'Terwyl suurbier vir baie mense 'n nuwe idee is, is suurheid nog 'n eeue-oue instrument wat brouers kan gebruik om interessante en heerlike biere te skep, op dieselfde manier as wat 'n sjef suurheid in 'n resep kan insluit deur die gebruik van sitrus, ”sê Pestl, wie se span bekend is vir die skep van gunstelinge vir suur ale, soos Jelly King, met sappige, verfrissende wenke van fuzzy perske en mandaryn.

'Meer as enigiets anders, dink ek suur bier word toenemend gewild omdat dit dikwels uiters toeganklik is,' sê hy.


Blokrede: Toegang uit u omgewing is tydelik beperk om veiligheidsredes.
Tyd: Vrydag, 21 Mei 2021 12:21:21 GMT

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U kan ook die dokumentasie lees vir meer inligting oor Wordfence se blokkeerhulpmiddels, of besoek wordfence.com vir meer inligting oor Wordfence.

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Suur IPA's kan beide ingewikkeld en aangenaam wees

Iewers tussen die toename in suur bier in die VSA en die meedoënlose wasige IPA -rage, het 'n handjievol van die nuutste brouers van die land suur IPA's begin vrystel. Die tert, vurige brousels word gemaak met die sagste mout, die nuutste hoep en die heerlikste vrugtepuree.

Nou word die suur IPA -styl 'n landswye kultusgunsteling. In Januarie 2019 het Hudson Valley Brewery, 'n operasie in New York wat aangekondig is vir sy suur IPA's, sy tweede herdenking gevier. In dieselfde maand het Colorado se Wiley Roots Brewing aangekondig dat hy van plan is om sy suur IPA -program uit te brei weens die gewilde vraag.

Vir brouerye wat toegewy is aan die styl, verteenwoordig suur IPA's meer as net nog 'n IPA -neiging. Dit is 'n heel nuwe manier om bier te benader.

Elke bierliefhebber benodig hierdie Hop Aroma -plakkaat

Suiker, suur en hop

Alhoewel dit nie amptelik gedefinieer is nie, word suur IPA's algemeen beskou as IPA's in New England-styl met ekstra tardheid. Die smaak kom hoofsaaklik vandaan laktobasillus, 'n mikro -organisme wat gebruik word in die ketelversuurproses. Bykomende geure kom uit vatveroudering, of van byvoegings soos vrugte, vanielje en laktose.

Jason Synan, medestigter en brouer van Hudson Valley Brewery, is 'n suur IPA-innoveerder. Hy is deels geïnspireer deur die plofbare gewildheid van New England IPA's (NEIPA's), wat volgens hom 'n duidelike tekort het.

'Ek het nie verstaan ​​waarom suurheid nie in hierdie styl as 'n kontrolepunt gebruik word nie,' sê hy oor NEIPA's. "Sap is suiker en suur." En so het hy en mede-eienaar en brouer Michael Renganeschi planne beraam. 'Ons het basies probeer om suur aan New England IPA bekend te stel, en#8221, sê hy.

Destyds was Synan besig om te brou by die Bacchus -restaurant en brouery in New Paltz. Toe hy van plan was om NEIPA's te herkonfigureer, het hy na die ikoniese New York City -cocktailbars soos Death & amp Co., Nitecap en Please Don't Tell gekyk.

'Vir my het dit regtig begin met 'n fassinasie om cocktails te maak,' sê hy. 'Cocktails het die vermoë om so presies, so presies, so wetenskaplik te wees. Hoe kombineer 10 tot 12 bestanddele tot 'n enkele, pragtige, geheimsinnige eliksir? Dit was die oorspronklike inspirasie. ”

Soos 'n mengeldrank, verdeel hy die proses om suur IPA in drie hoofkomponente te maak: residuele suiker, suurheid en bitterheid.

Die suikers kom van sagte korrels soos koring of hawer, sowel as melksuiker, ook bekend as laktose, wat ''n soepel, welige mondgevoel skep', sê hy. Laktose, en soet in die algemeen, "dien as 'n perfekte kontrapunt vir die profiel van suurheid. Die lewendige, blusende hoë toon van die gebruik van lactobacillus by voorlopige fermentasie beklemtoon die sappige kwaliteit wat dikwels gebruik word om New England IPA te beskryf. Hop, wat by laer temperature gebruik word, bied 'n 'botaniese karakter' wat die vergelyking voltooi.

Peaches & amp Cream State Fair Cobbler was 'n treffer op die Big Beers Belgians & Barleywines -fees in Breckenridge, Colo., In Januarie. Krediet: Wiley Roots Brewing / Facebook.com

As suiker, suur en bitterheid die basis vorm vir 'n suur IPA, 'is die volgende stap verhoging en versiering', soos veroudering van eikehout, versnit en die toevoeging van vrugte en kruie, sê Synan. "Dit is gemengde fermentasie, maar onder 'n beheerde omgewing."

Daar is natuurlik verskeie maniere om suur IPA's te maak. "Ons definieer 'n suur IPA as 'n bier met 'n suur komponent sowel as 'n hop -komponent," sê Kyle Carbaugh, uitvoerende hoof van Wiley Roots Brewing en hoofbrouer, aan VinePair. Maar vir ons is bitterheid selde 'n relevante faktor, en hy sê.

Wiley Roots se Cobbler-reeks "ondersoek die samespel tussen tradisionele tertbyvoegsels, sappige en sitrus-vorentoe-hopvariëteite en 'n suurige IPA-basis," sê Carbaugh. Byvoegings is 'swaarhandig', sê hy, maar 'geen enkele komponent oorheers die algehele indruk van die bier van begin tot einde nie.'

'N Mixoloog kan dieselfde sê. 'Vir die meeste suur IPA's wat ons maak, is daar definitiewe onderbou van sitrus-voorwaartse cocktails. Mai Tais, die Franse 75's en die Penicillin -skemerkelkies was almal onlangse insinkings wat ons fokus op suur IPA's gestuur het, 'sê Carbaugh.

Een van die gewilde mengsels van Hudson Valley Brewery, Bloom, word beskryf as 'n suur dubbele IPA met rou koring, gemoute hawer, melksuiker, kersies, donker sjokolade en kamille, saam met Citra en Simcoe. 'Op papier klink dit soos 'n hype -bier. Dit klink belaglik, ”erken Synan. 'Maar dan het u die bier en u sê:' Ag, dit is eintlik iets wat sê. 'Dit is nie net 'n lys van belaglike bestanddele nie.

'Heerlike teenstrydigheid'

Alhoewel Hudson Valley die afgelope twee jaar die suur IPA -styl ontwikkel het, het ander tertbolle dit voorafgegaan. In 2015 het New Belgium Brewing van Fort Collins, Colo., Hop Tart vrygestel, 'n Amerikaanse suurlemoenbier wat die brouery beskryf as 'n vrugbare, vrugtige draai op die tipiese Amerikaanse suur. lactobacillus, en Nelson Sauvin, Galaxy en Experimental Hop 522.

Ook in 2015 het Almanac Beer Co. sy Hoppy Sour-reeks enkel-hop-suur aal begin, soos Hoppy Sour: Citra, Hoppy Sour: Amarillo, Hoppy Sour: Equinox en Hoppy Sour: Mosaic. 'Met die een voet in die suurwêreld van die vat, en die ander in die land van IPA's, is hierdie stylbreukende geurondersoek 'n geurige geur, gevolg deur 'n komplekse funky eikehoutafwerking,' skryf Almanac op sy webwerf. Dit beskryf die tegniek as ''n heerlike weerspreking van smaak en styl'.

Wiley Roots het inspirasie geneem uit Casey Brewing and Blending se Brett Loves -reeks, 'n reeks hoppieboerderye soos Brett Loves Citra, Brett Loves Mosaic en Brett Loves Simcoe. Carbaugh "wou sien hoe hierdie inspirasie uitgevoer kan word met 'n ketel suur in teenstelling met 'n vat-verouderde plaashuis," sê hy. In 2016 debuteer Wiley Roots een van sy eerste suur IPA's, Tyrannos Morisette, gevolg deur One Hop In My Pocket.

Vroeër daardie jaar het Epic Brewing van Salt Lake City 'n naam op die styl geplaas toe dit sy Tart 'n Juicy Sour IPA vrystel. 'Terwyl' suur 'en' IPA 'gewoonlik 'n oksimoron sou wees, het ons brouers die smaakprofiel ingeskakel,' het Epic Brewing destyds aan New School Beer gesê. En dus is 'n styl gebore.

Cape May Brewing bevat 'n suur IPA onder sy reeks aal en laers. Krediet: Cape May Brewing / capemaybrewery.com

Stillwater Artisanal het sy "elevation set" in 2016 bekendgestel met biere soos Tangerine Haze, 'n wilde IPA met mandarijn Pineapple Fields, 'n droë-gesprinkte suurbier met pynappel en salie en Mango Dream, 'n droë-hop-suurbier met mango.

Destyds was die Hudson Valley -brouery nog in die voorfase. Synan en sy vennote het in 2016 'n spasie in Beacon, NY, bekom. Die volgende Januarie het hulle amptelik vir die publiek oopgemaak - en die streek se oë en smaak vir 'n nuwe bierstyl oopgemaak.

Nou stel die brouery ongeveer drie tot vier interpretasies per maand vry, en twee maal per week kan waaiers waai om die kraankamer. 'Dit is ongelooflik om te sien hoe mense daarop reageer,' sê Synan.

Wiley Roots het in Januarie 2019 sy vyfde bestaansjaar gevier met sy grootste blik nog. Vyf nuwe etikette verskyn op die mark, waaronder die langverwagte Peaches & Cream State Fair Cobbler. Die bier is 'n keiserlike weergawe van sy Peaches & amp; Cream County Fair Cobbler, 'n ketel-versuurde milkshake-suur IPA gemaak met heelvrugte-perske-puree, graham-kraker, vanielje, kaneel en laktose, gedroog met Mosaic en Galaxy. Carbaugh meen die reeks "het Wiley Roots 'n reputasie verwerf vir die styl wat deur Hudson Valley Brewery begin is."

Blueberry & amp; Lemon County Fair Cobbler, en Cranberry & Raspberry County Fair Cobbler, wat albei droog is met Vic Secret.

Sixpoint Brewery het die afgelope paar maande ook sy portefeulje verfris met 'n rukkie suur IPA's, waaronder Stun Gun, 'n suur IPA met mango en pynappelpuree Dreamsicle, 'n suur IPA met bloed lemoen, mandaryn, vanielje, en laktose en Party Piñata, 'n suur IPA met pynappel, geroosterde klapper en vanielje.

‘ Heerlike vreugde en speelsheid ’

Suur IPA's spreek tot beide kante van 'n spektrum. Dit is lekker vir diegene wat van nostalgiese geure hou, en fassinerend vir diegene wat daarvan hou om na te dink oor die mikrobiese ingewikkeldhede van ons drankies. Ondanks hul uitgebreide bestanddele en esoteriese ingewikkeldhede, is suur IPA's moontlik die mees toeganklike IPA -styl tot nog toe.

'Dit balanseer presisie en 'n gevoel van ware broutegniek met pure vreugde en speelsheid,' sê Synan. Daarom kan die nerds dit geniet en op 'n tegniese vlak met die produk omgaan, maar aan die ander kant hoef u niks te weet van brouery of die ambagsbierbedryf nie, of 'n konteks te hê, om een ​​van ons biere te geniet. Terselfdertyd dat dit al die akademiese dinge doen, is dit baie lekker om te drink. ”

Vyf suur IPA's wat lekker is om te drink

Hierdie suur dubbele IPA word gemaak met rou koring, hawermout, melksuiker, pynappelpuree, karamel, klappervlokkies, Colombiaanse Nariño en Brasiliaanse Machado -koffie en vanielje en met Citra gespring. ABV: 8 persent. Gemiddelde prys: $ 20 4-pak (blikkies van 16 gram)

Hierdie suur IPA van Milkshake suur die Amerikaanse suidelike klassieke nagereg met puree-bloubessies en suurlemoene, graham-kraker, kaneel, vanielje en laktose, en word met Vic Secret gedroog. ABV: 5,8 persent. Gemiddelde prys: $ 22 4-pak (blikkies van 16 gram)

Hierdie suur IPA is 'n fees in 'n blikkie, gebrou met pynappel, geroosterde klapper en vanielje. ABV: 8,4 persent. Gemiddelde prys: $ 9 (konsep)

Nog 'n gebak-geïnspireerde suur IPA, hierdie uitgawe van Virginia Beach, Va. ’s Commonwealth Brewing, word gemaak met spesiale moute, plaaslike heuning, swartbessies, suurlemoenskil, melksuiker en met lemondrop-hoep drooggemaak. ABV: 7,8 persent. Gemiddelde prys: $ 6 (blik van 16 gram)

Cape May Brewing in New Jersey spog met 'n ketelversuurde IPA met sitrus- en tropiese vrugtegeure. ABV: 6,5 persent. Gemiddelde prys: $ 13 4-pak (blikkies van 16 gram)


Vyf van die beste vrugte suur biere op die oomblik

Suur, wat al meer as drie jaar lank die volgende groot ding is, beslaan 'n verdelende hoek van die bierwêreld. Volgens die internet is dit vroue wat hulle liefhet. Nee, wag, dit is geslagspesifieke hipsters. Of miskien hou almal van suur bier, ons weet net nie hoe om daaroor te praat nie.

In werklikheid kan almal wat pittige geure en 'n bietjie funk waardeer, in die kategorie val. Ons gunsteling vrugtesuur bestaan ​​uit bruisende Amerikaanse ale, gemeng met erfenisperskes, suurlemoenblare wat deur swartbessies gesny is, en gemengde blonde aalwyne wat in wynvate verouder is met bessies en steenvrugte. Hier is vyf van ons gunsteling vrugtebier.

Firestone Walker Feral Peach

Die robuuste, komplekse en heerlike tert, die funky wilde bier van Firestone Walker het 'n wasige, goue kleur, matige bruis en vrugtige geure. Dit is gemaak met plaaslike wit dwergperskes uit Kalifornië en is minder aggressief vrugte-vorentoe as sommige perskebiere. Soek aardse note (die bier ondergaan 'n lang rypwording in eikebome) en 'n pikdroog afwerking.

Kim Hibiscus Sour Lager

Hibiscus is dus nie 'n vrug nie, dit is 'n blomplant. Maar dit word aangevul met swartbessie (heeltemal 'n bessie!) In hierdie tert, verfrissende bier van die SingleCut van New York. Koringmout en gis sorg vir balans en voorkom dat Kim Hibiscus parfuum of te vrugtig proe. Ligte pienk met 'n droë afwerking, dit is 'n uitstekende opsie vir mense wat beweer dat hulle nie van suur bier hou nie.

Avery Brewing Co. Appelkoos Suur

Diegene wat meer vrugte as funk soek, sal Avery se Apricot Sour waardeer. Vrugte vorentoe sonder om sakkarine te wees, dit is 'n skare-aangename getal. Dit balanseer sappige, steenvrugte soetheid met vat-verouderde tang en aangename bretty-note. Die beste van alles, dit is nasionaal beskikbaar in supermarkte en drankwinkels.

Cascade Brewing Company Noyaux

Vernoem na appelkoosputte (noyaux vertaal na "klip" in Frans), die mengsel van suur blonde aalwyn van hierdie Oregon -brouery word tot 24 maande lank verouder met frambose en appelkose in witwynvate. Die resultaat is tert, pittig en reguit, en dit is een van ons gunsteling biere van 2017. Noyaux is helder en borrelend, met 'n robynrooi kleur en dowwe note van amandel- en roosblare.

Upland Brewing Sour Reserve

Hierdie suurblonde bier van vat uit Bloomington, Indiana, is weliswaar nie 'n maklike bier om in die hande te kry nie. Upland stel beperkte hoeveelhede beskikbaar op 'n eerste-op-die-eerste-basis-basis beskikbaar, maar die kans is die moeite werd. Dit is 'n groot, funky aangeleentheid wat baie pons in 'n beskeie ABV van 6 persent verpak. Die gepaste naam Sour Reserve is gemaak van 'n mengsel van een-, twee- en driejarige blonde ale en proe droog en aards, met groen appel- en steenvrugte op die afwerking.


Hoe om suur biere te waardeer - resepte

Op een of ander manier het ek vergeet dat dit amper 'n jaar was sedert ek my vriende Alex, Peter en Nathan oortuig het om 'n dag lank my bier te meng en te bottel. Ek dink nie dit is so moeilik om 'n B+ suur bier te maak uit 'n enkele groep wort nie, gefermenteer in 'n enkele fermentor, maar om beter te doen as dit verg baie geluk, selfs vir die beste brouers ter wêreld. Die enigste manier om konsekwent wonderlik te word, is om 'n meester te word in die vermenging van verskeie groepe.

In plaas daarvan om gedetailleerde proe -aantekeninge vir elk van die vier versnitte te plaas, het ek gedink ek sal 'n paar aantekeninge gee oor wat ek dink oor die biere, hoe dit vergelyk en wat ek geleer het. Proe -notas van elk van die basisbiere word aan die formules gekoppel

Voorkoms – Rooibruin, dun bruin kop.
Aroma – Wasagtig, rooi bessies (Irma), effens dronk, en sagte asyn (Apple Brandy Golden).
Proe – Gebalanseerde suurheid (nie veel asyn nie) met 'n bietjie soetigheid. Dit is effens koring in die afwerking.
Mondgevoel – Middelmatig vir 'n suur bier. Medium-lae koolzuur.
Drinkbaarheid – Ek hou meer van die geur as van die geur, in die algemeen 'n soliede suur wat by my groei terwyl dit warm word.

Voorkoms – Gebrande-oranje, baie swak kopretensie (en nie een van hierdie biere is wonderlik nie).
Aroma – Soortgelyk aan die van Nathan met sy strepe asyn, maar dit het meer eikebome. Skoner met minder openlike vrugtigheid.
Proe – Die suurheid is groot en helder, net effens asyn. Dieselfde balans as 'n goeie Vlaamse rooi, minimale funk.
Mondgevoel – Die eikebome voeg meer tanniene by as die ander bier.
Drinkbaarheid – 'n Meer drinkbare weergawe van 'n Vlaamse rooi, skerper en droër.

Voorkoms – Die bleekste van die groep, briljant goud.
Aroma – Die skoonste van die geure, vars hooi, appel en effense parfuum.
Proe – Helder pittige suur, effens moutige, droë, ek dink dit het 'n hupstoot nodig van iets.
Mondgevoel – Die skerpste van die klomp. Soortgelyk aan koolzuur as die res, maar dit sal baat by meer.
Drinkbaarheid – Ek hou baie meer hiervan as Berliner lambic straight (ons sit ook die helfte op kersies).

Voorkoms Die donkerste van die versnitte, bruin met rooi hoogtepunte.
Aroma – Groot aardse bokwietheuning, amper so sterk soos in Dark Saison III, maar dit word effens gedemp.
Proe – Die geur verskil van die donker saison, met 'n ronder, roosterbroodige geur. Matige suurheid.
Mondgevoel – Die volste van hierdie biere, en die laagste koolzuur.
Drinkbaarheid – Ek hou nogal meer hiervan as die reguit Saison III. Dit het 'n beter balans en is makliker om te drink.


So, wat het al hierdie vermenging en daaropvolgende proe my geleer?

Daar is definitiewe drempels waar sekere geure baie vinnig van onopspoorbaar na prominent kan oorgaan. My mengsel, alhoewel dit slegs 7% meer van die Dark Saison III bevat as die van Nathan, het 'n baie sterker geur van bokwietheuning. Net so kan dit relatief klein toevoegings verg om probleme waar te neem, soos met Pete se vergroting van die Berliner lambic.

Veral wanneer bottelversorging probeer uitvind hoe die bier sal verander, een van die moeilikste take is. Ek het aanvanklik baie gehou van Nathan se versnit, maar met verloop van tyd het Alex dit ingehaal en miskien verby gegaan. Dit laat my waardeer die verdediging wat Lauren Salazar (menggoeroe van Nieu -België) gee vir die besluit om die "Lips of Faith" bomwerpers van La Folie te pasteuriseer.

Ten spyte van die uitdaging en geheimsinnigheid van die vermengingskuns, dink ek dat ons almal ons baie goed van hul taak gekwyt het met ons eerste werklike poging om hierdie biere te meng. Nie een van die resultate is perfek nie, maar ek dink almal is beter as ten minste sommige van hul bier. Hopelik vind ek 'n verskoning om weer iets soortgelyks te doen as ek nog 'n ronde suurbiere gereed het om gebottel te word.


Hoe om suur biere te waardeer - resepte

Kombineer water, gemoute graan, hop en gis, en u het bier. Voeg bakterieë by en jy het suur bier.

Mike Roy, die brouer by die Hyattsville -broupub Franklin's, hou nie van die term suur nie. Dit is te beperk. Hy noem hulle verkieslik wilde biere.

Die suur in suur bier is suur wat deur bakterieë oorgedra word, tipies lactobacillus of pediococcus. In verskillende grade maak bakterieë tert, maar lactobacillus smaak nie na enigiets nie. Dit is hoekom brouers vrugte by suur bier voeg, die bier in wynvate verouder of dit besmet brettanomyces (brett), 'n familie gis wat aardse geure kan gee, wat wissel van rook en leer tot nat hond. Brett sal ook die suikers eet wat gewone brougis gewen word, wat 'n droër bier tot gevolg het.

Omdat bier wat met brett gemaak word nie noodwendig suur is nie, maar daarmee saamgevoeg word, sê Mike dat die term wildebier 'n beter sambreelterm is wat suur- en bretbier insluit.

Afhangende van hoeveel bakterieë en brett 'n brouer byvoeg, kan u 'n baie droë, uiters tert bier (Hannsen's Oudbeitje) of 'n soet, droë bier met net 'n sweempie tert. Weereens, bakterieë en gis is lewende organismes, sodat u nooit heeltemal seker is wat hulle met die bier sal doen nie. En selfs as brouers die gis en bakterieë suksesvol beheer, is die verskeidenheid geure wat die mikroörganismes produseer, verstommend.

Mike is 'n aanhanger van Oudbeitje, maar gelukkig vir die res van ons werk hy aan bier by Franklin. En as u enigsins belangstel om suurbiere te verken (er, wilde biere), sal die Franklin's Funk -projek 'n goeie begin wees.

& quot; Dit is nie dat jy nie van suurbiere hou nie, jy het net nie die een gevind waarvan jy hou nie. & quot

Suur (of wilde) bier is 'n moeilike styl vir die oningewydes. As u eerste suurbier Duchesse De Bourgogne is - 'n groot, soet en suur rooibier van Vlaandere - sal u waarskynlik nie 'n fan van die styl wees nie. Vertrou my. Vervang die hertogin egter met 'n Monks Café of Helios van Victory, en u wonder waaroor al my bohaai gaan.

Dit is vreemd dat 'n bierstyl soveel variasie kan hê, maar dit is presies waarom suurbiere net so interessant is as wat dit irriterend is.

Tot onlangs was ek oortuig dat suurbier -entoesiaste (suurgeeks?) Hul klein nis van die bierwêreld geniet. In teenstelling met die ander sloppe, het hulle gesofistikeerde verhemelte wat deur die asyn- en skuurgeure kan sny om eienskappe te onderskei in 'n bierstyl wat die meeste mense afstootlik sou vind.

Dit blyk dat ek weer verkeerd is. Die mense wat van suurbiere hou, is 'n evangeliese klomp. Hulle praat graag oor hul gekke biere met almal wat bereid is om 'n gesprek te voer oor infeksies, perdekomberse en die romantiese eienskappe van Belgiese boere (hierdie kan die beperkte gewildheid van suurbiere verduidelik).

Ek ontmoet Mike en mede -suurbier -entoesiaste Nathan Zeender en Mike Tonsmeire vir nog 'n bierproe. Anders as die proe wat ek by Granville Moore gedoen het, was die doel van hierdie sessie om 'n verskeidenheid biere te probeer wat meer toeganklik was vir die oningewydes. Die biere sluit in Helios, Petoskey Pale Ale van Leelanau, Fantome Hiver, 'n paar suurbiere waaraan Mike werk by die broupub en 'n paar tuisbroue.

Sommige was goed, sommige was wonderlik, en 'n paartjie het net nie vir my gewerk nie (die Petoskey Pale Ale was te tert en droog, en 'n tuisgemaakte Vlaamse rooibier wat Mike Roy gebring het, het te veel na 'n Vlaamse rooibier gesmaak). Maar as ek die kans gegun het, sou ek elke bier weer probeer.

Ek het die Fantome op Nathan se aanbeveling gebring. Nathan is die skaars persoon wat van die begin af van bier gehou het. Nathan het ook 'n vat suur bier in sy kelder. Hy verbind hom duidelik tot die styl.

Die bier was 'n fantastiese winteraanbieding (& quothiver & quot is Frans vir die winter), wat goed is, behalwe dat dit 'n saison was, eerder as 'n tradisionele suurbier, soos 'n gueuze. Saisons is geneig om soet, verfrissende bier te wees, wat dikwels in die warmer maande bedien word. Volgens Nathan beteken styl en tradisie nie veel vir die Fantome -brouer Dany Prignon nie, wat meer kunstenaar is as die biermaker. Prignon volg nie veel resepte nie en maak waarvan hy hou. Die Hiver kan dus 'n seisoen wees, of 'n lambiek, maar dit het byna altyd 'n suur kwaliteit. U sal eenvoudig nie weet wat in die bottel is totdat u dit oopmaak nie.

Die bottel Hiver wat ons probeer het, gooi 'n wasige strooikleur, was effens suur met 'n ryk lyf en 'n bietjie tert. Al met al was dit ordentlik.

Die Helios was 'n ander storie. Dit was nie my eerste ervaring met die bier nie, en dit sou my laaste nie wees nie. Alhoewel dit 'n bietjie tert was, was die bier effens soet, droog en baie skerp. Een van my gunstelinge van die aand. Helios is ook 'n saison wat sy droë, tert eienskappe kry van die brett -brouers wat Victory by die bier voeg (ok, my teorie dat saisons nie suur bier is nie, is wankelrig).

Dan was daar Mike 's -biere (die Mike van regs). Hy maak sy funk -bier deur 'n klein hoeveelheid laktobacillus en brett by monsters van die gereelde brouery te voeg. Die resultaat was droër, effens tert weergawes van die oorspronklike. Hulle was heerlik.

Moet egter nog nie vinnig na die Franklin's gaan vir hierdie bier nie. Die eerste Funk -bier is nog 'n paar maande nadat dit gereed was. In Februarie is die eerste twee biere, Gotta Have That Funk ('n donker, koperbruin ale) en Higher Ground ('n tertige trippel-ale), in beperkte hoeveelhede beskikbaar op konsep en in bottels by die brewpub. Sometime in the spring or summer, Mike will release Miss Lucifer's Love, a funked fruit beer made with currants.

Because the Funk beers include brett, Mike keeps them in a corner of Franklin's basement. Tucked behind stainless steel tanks and sacks of malted grain are a trio of plastic containers and four small kegs. This is the home of Funk.

Judging from the sample he brought to the tasting, the Higher Ground is the farthest along. It has all the traditional fruity sweet qualities of a Belgian tripel, but it's just a bit drier, and the tart, sour flavors are subdued. By February, I expect it to taste more like Helios, with a more pronounced tart flavor and crisp finish.

In the mean time, here are a few other sour beers to try, as recommended by Nathan, Mike Tonsmeire and Belgian beer expert Bill Catron: Helios, Lindemans' fruit beers (kriek and framboise in particular), any of Jolly Pumpkin's Bam beers (Bam Bière, E.S. Bam, Weizen Bam Bière, and Bam Noire), Fantome, Orval, Founders' Cercie and Dogfish Head's Festina Peche. 

If I've learned anything in my sour beer trials, it's that there is no sour beer, but there are many, many sour beers. It may be the most varied of all beer styles, which makes it among the most interesting. When you order a pilsner, even if you've never had that particular pilsner before, you know what to expect. All pilsners tastes more or less the same. That consistency doesn't exist with sour beers. It's a wild beer style that demands exploration and I'm beginning to understand why sour beer enthusiasts enjoy them as much as they do.

I wanted to do a follow up photo with the Duchesse for this post. So I popped the cork, poured a glass and took the pictures. Afterward, I decided to give the old gal one more try. Now that I've tried all these sour beers, I was curious to see if the beer was as repellent as before. At least I knew what I was getting into this time.

You know, it wasn't that bad.

The first taste was still a slap in the mouth, but once I got used to the vinegar I began to taste caramel and dark cherries hidden underneath. It was malty and sweet like I'd expected the first time I bought it, yet it was more effervescent than a traditional ale. Over the course of the next three hours, I watched the Bucs lose to the Falcons and polished off the 750 ml bottle of Duchesse De Bourgogne.

I didn't love the beer, but I certainly didn't hate it. And considering where I started with the Duchesse, that's quite something.

I know it's a cliche way of wrapping up this series, but I do think I'm acquiring a taste for sour beer. Developing a taste for lonely Belgian farmers will take more time.


Related wikiHows


How to Appreciate Sour Beers - Recipes

After almost three years of blogging about sour beer (among other things fermentational) I think most of what I have learned about brewing them at home is buried somewhere in the roughly 250 posts on this site. That said there isn't anywhere on the blog where the bulk of my opinions and experiences have been coalesced for easy reference. I did put up a lengthy post about Brettanomyces a year or so ago, but that covered just one aspect of sour beer production.

What follows is essentially based solely on my experiences, so I won’t talk too much about things I do not have first hand experience with (like biology, pH levels, traditional practices etc…). Enjoy the data dump and please let me know if I failed to cover any topics that you think should be covered here.


Base beer (brewday): In brewing sour beers and tasting many those made by the great number of American craft and homebrewers now trying their hand at it I have realized that you really don’t need to do anything special on brew day. Pretty much any well made base beer can serve as the foundation of a sour beer. The only beers to avoid souring are those that are aggressively bitter/roasty/spiced because these flavors will be exaggerated by the low finishing gravity of a sour beer.

I have brewed and tasted good sour beers based on numerous classic style, including: English Brown/Mild, Porter, Wee Heavy, Imperial Stout, Wit, Belgian Pale, Saison, Biere de Garde, Belgian Blonde, Dubbel, Tripel, Quad (Belgian Strong Dark), Gruit, and Old Ale. Not to mention the classic sour styles, Berliner Weisse, Lambic/Gueuze, Flanders Red, and Oud Bruin.

Completely off-style brewing is welcome for sour beers as well, but in general you want to make a beer with a reasonably high final gravity (to feed the microbes) and low hop aroma (hops will fade and oxidize over the long secondary fermentation). Some of the more out-there beers I have soured include: Honey-Peach Wheat, Orange-Rosemary Dark Saison, a blend of Saison and Biere de Garde, Bourbon Barrel Wee Heavy, Butternut Squash Brown, and Cherry Quadrupel. Not every idea is going to work out perfectly, but there are many sour beers out there to be made that aren’t found in the style guidelines.

You can use the same basic techniques during the mash/sparge/boil that you would for any other style you don't need special procedures unless you are trying to replicate a classic/historic style (turbid mash for a lambic, no/short boil for a Berliner Weisse etc…). The only thing I would suggest in general is to try to mash a bit hotter than you would otherwise to ensure that there is plenty of residual extract left for the other microbes to chew on after the Saccharomyces is finished.

I have not found aged hops to be a necessity for any sour beers including inoculated-lambics. Since you are adding the microbes yourself you do not need to worry about protecting the beer from wild invaders as lambic brewers must when they are slowly cooling their wort in a coolship, exposed to the microbe-laden air. If you are looking to do a spontaneous/ambient fermentation then aging hops is something you should look into (several years before brewing. ).

I do not do much with the water for my sour beers. Just enough to control the mash pH if need be. I do not see a need to mess around with the flavor ions (chloride, sodium, sulfate) in a beer that is already so complex.


Types of Microbes (bugs): Just like a regular beer brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces) is responsible for most of the alcohol production. The following microbes are responsible for the bulk of the souring/funking after that:

Brettanomyces (Brett) – The king of wild yeasts in the brewing world. It helps to breakdown dextrins (chains of sugars too long for Saccharomyces to ferment) and can add a wide range of characteristic esters and phenols to sour beers. These can range from nice ones like pineapple, apple, and pear through ones that may or may not be appreciated like horse blanket and farmhouse/barnyard to the vile smoky, Band-Aid, and fecal batch ruiners. These flavors depend mostly on the strain of Brett, but are also influenced by the types of acids and alcohols available.

Pediococcus (Pedio) – Produces most of the lactic acid in most sour beers. It often takes several months to really get working. Certainly strains can cause your beer to become “sick,” that is to become very viscous for a period of time (this has only happened once to me, but it passed after a couple months leaving a nicely sour beer). It can make your beer taste buttery for a time as well, but the Brett will clean this up in time (never use Pedio without Brett). Pedio also plays a role is the production of some traditional sausages.

Lactobacillus (Lacto) – The only time lacto plays a big role is in Berliner Weisses, the rest of the time the IBUs are high enough to keep it at bay (>8 IBU ). It can sour a beer faster than Pedio , and is also the dominant player in yogurt production.

Acetobacter – Generally its role is kept to a minimum. It needs oxygen to convert the ethanol (alcohol) into acetic acid (vinegar). That should be some good motivation to keep your airlocks full and your barrels topped off. You can always add a bit of acetic character by adding some vinegar at bottling.

There are plenty of other minor microbial players (particularly in spontaneous fermentation), check out Wild Brews for a more comprehensive listing and descriptions of them all.

I like to use a combination of commercial cultures and bottle dregs (the fresher the better). In general it seems like the cultures sold by Wyeast and White Labs are less aggressive than those from bottle dregs, but they serve as a good base since you can't be sure what you are getting out of a bottle. Getting a wild range of microbes into your beer will give you a better chance at a balanced character and a relatively quick aging period. Here is a listing of beers with harvestable dregs that might be helpful.

Sanitation : These days I keep a second set of post-boil plastic (tubing, auto-siphon, bottling wand, bottling bucket, and thief) for my sour beers. There is no need to have a separate mash tun, boil kettle, wort chiller, or anything else that touches the wort when it is still hot. I do use the same pool of Better Bottles for fermentation and glass bottles for storage for all of my beers.

I clean all of my equipment with a long soak in hot tap water and OxiClean Free. Once it is completely free of visible debris I rinse it in hot water, then soak it in cold water and either Iodophor or Star-San (I alternate them to keep the microbes well behaved). I have had two infected batches over the five years I have been homebrewing , but these may or may not have been the result of sour beers (the first one probably was, but I suspect the second one was not).

There is no reason to segregate your fermenters into different areas during fermentation/aging. I have my clean and funky beers on different sides of the same room just to ensure I don’t disturb the sours while I am moving the clean beers around.




Inoculation: I have gotten the best results adding all of the microbes at the start of the fermentation together with the primary Saccharomyces strain. I don’t generally make a starter for the bugs unless I am using pure cultures (for something like a 100% Brett beer). This is because the different microbes have different required conditions for growth. Yeast strains (including Brett) need oxygen, Pedio on the other hand can’t deal with oxygen. pH can also be an issue since the acid produced for bacteria can damage yeast cells (remember this when considering waiting to pitch a primary yeast to give the bacteria a head start).

Pretty much any standard yeast will do for primary fermentation. I have made great sour beers with American/English/Scottish/Belgian Ale, German Lager, and Saison strains. Some character from the primary yeast may remain in the finished beer, but most of the esters will be destroyed by the various other microbes (primarily Brettanomyces ) over the long secondary fermentation. The biggest impact the primary yeast will have on the finished beer is the attenuation level (low attenuating strains will leave more sugars for the other microbes leading to beers with more sourness and funk).

I have not gotten enough sourness by doing a clean fermentation followed by microbes in secondary. This seems to work in barrels where the bugs are receiving some oxygen through the wood, but in a carboy the resulting beer generally lacks the sour assault that I crave. Adding microbes after primary fermentation is a fine idea if you just want some funk because Brett seems to be able to produce esters without a lot of gravity change.

I usually rack sour beers on the same sort of schedule I would a regular ale. I wait until primary fermentation is mostly complete and a good deal of the yeast/ trub has settled out (2-3 weeks). Then I rack to a Better Bottle (or barrel), add the oak (if any), and slap on a stopper and airlock. Not much more to it than that.

If after 6 months or so the beer still has not shown any signs of souring I will often add the dregs from a few more bottles or sour beers to try to kick things off. As a last resort I may also add some malt extract to feed the microbes.

I would save ambient fermentation for after you get a good number of sours going. I have not tried it, so for the time being I don’t have much to say about it except that it is riskier than pitching known cultures either from a lab or bottle dregs. Even the best lambic breweries blend most of their barrels to reduce variability, if you try an ambient fermentation try to get several going so you have some blending options.

You can and should repitch yeast cakes from sour beers. Each time you repitch you will get more funk and sourness because the bacteria will grow faster than the yeast. It does not have a huge batch to batch impact in my experience, but it is something you will notice if you do for multiple batches. I generally only repitch 1-2 times, but that is more because I only generally want to do some non-sours as well. I have a friend who has been repitching and saving the same mixed culture for years without any problem.



Wood/Oak: A classic component of sour beers is the wood (almost always oak) barrel. Ideally you would get a group of friends (or a big enough system) and brew enough to fill an entire used commercial barrel (50-60 gallons). Used wine and bourbon barrels are relatively cheap and easy to find (generally for around $100). While this may seem like a lot of beer and effort, in my experiences using full sized barrels can create sour beers with flavors that are simply not possible in any other way.

However I realize that this is not an option for everyone on every batch (including me). You should also consider:

Small barrel – I have not used these, but for better or worse they will let in proportionally more oxygen and lose more beer than a large barrel due to their higher surface area to volume ratio and thinner staves . The smaller the barrel the more this will be a concern.

Oak cubes/chips – Cubes/beans are your best bet because they take longer to give up their flavor due to their lower surface area. Around an ounce of cubes is a good place to start for a mild oak flavor. I boil them for about 10 minutes to removes some of the harsh fresh oak flavors that are usually stripped out by whatever is in the barrel before the beer. Sour beer can be pretty delicate and thin and it can be easily overwhelmed by harsh tannins or oak flavors. You can always add more after a few months if you want more oak character.

If you want to mimic wine/bourbon/port/brandy barrel aging you beer just soak the cubes in the alcohol before adding them to the beer (adding some of the alcohol of choice straight to the beer can also help boost this character). In general wine pairs best with sour beers, but a spirit can work well with bigger/bolder sours.

Wooden dowel, chair leg, peg - I played around with these for awhile, but never got results I couldn ’t replicate with cubes. In my experience this setup can cause problems due to pressure build-up and cracked carboy necks due to the wood swelling. You can get around some of these problems by putting the oak through a stopper, but so far I haven't tasted a beer to make me think it is worth the effort.

Aging Vessel: If you aren't going to go with a barrel, there are several options to consider when deciding what vessel you want to age your sour beer in. Since the beer will age for so much longer than a standard beer things that wouldn't matter otherwise like the amount of oxygen that can diffuse through the material start to matter.

Better Bottle - What I use because they don't have the risk of breaking that glass carboys do. I also like the wider opening for getting fruit or hops in/out. They may let a negligible amount of oxygen in, but opening the stopper once will let more in than months of aging.

Glass Carboy - Just make sure you don't break one full of year old sour beer. The big advantage of these is that no oxygen can get in and they are easy to sanitize.

Bucket - I have yet to try aging a sour beer in one, but my friends who have do not seem to be getting objectionably acetic results as some people suggest (due to their high oxygen permeability). It may depend on things like temperature and specific microbe varieties. I also don't like the fact that you have to open them to look at the beer.

Conical/Keg - I don't use either, but the advantage of stainless is that like glass it is easy to sanitize and impervious to oxygen. If I had the money for a conical I probably wouldn't tie it up for several years with beer. A keg on the other hand seems like a fine place to do your sour beer fermenting if that is something you are interested in if you don't mind the obstructed view.


Aging: The longer you can age a sour beer in the fermenter the better, as they will almost always improve for a couple years. A moderate temperature is best in my experience (anywhere from the low 60s up into the 70s). A higher temperature will encourage more rapid souring, while a lower temperature will lead to a more balanced (less aggressive) beer.

A pellicle is a sign that there is oxygen in the head-space more than anything else. I have had fantastically sour/funky beers that never grew more than a light skin, and terrible beers that grew huge pellicles because too much oxygen was getting in. In general it is not something I would worry about too much either way (unless you are trying to brew a clean beer).

Just like any other beer you are best off aging sour beers where they get as little light as possible (I generally just use the boxes they come in or a pillow case with a hole cut to let the airlock through). It is also nice if you can keep them somewhere out of the way so they are out of sight and out of mind, making it easier to wait for them to age.

Fruit: Pretty much any fruit can work in the right sour beer. That said berries (sour cherry, raspberry) and stone fruits (apricot, peach) are the classics. They have a good balance of acidity, sweetness, and flavor. For the most part I like getting fresh fruit from the farmer’s market, but whatever is the most cost effective and tasty for you will work. For small fruits/berries I simply freeze them (which breaks their cell walls) until I am ready to add them to the beer. I let them defrost in a fermenter before racking the beer onto them. For larger fruits I will generally slice them up, then either freeze them or give them a bit of a muddle with an auto-siphon before racking a beer onto them.

In addition to adding a distinct flavor, fruit adds sugar, and acids as well. Most of the sugars added by the fruit are eaten by the bugs and critters which in turn cause them to produce more acidity and boost the production of other flavorful byproducts. The acids add a different character to the sourness since they are either malic or citric, both of which are a bit sharper than the lactic acid produced by the microbes in beer (malolactic bacteria will convert malic to lactic acid, so that is something to consider if you do not like the acid character of a fruited sour beer). In addition to their main constituents fruit also adds anti-oxidants, that’s right the same compounds that help prevent damage to your DNA from free-radicals also prevents oxygen molecules from creating off-flavors in your beer as it ages. < The acid of the beer really helps to make the fruitiness pop in a way that most "clean" fruit beers do not. The actual amount of fruit you need will depend on the variety of fruit, quality/freshness, base beer, and amount of fruit flavor you are aiming for. In general .5 lbs per gallon is the low end (good for assertive fruits like raspberry), and 2.5 lbs/gal is the high end for more subtle fruits, or if you have a bigger/darker base beer.

You will not get a sweet-fruity sour beer unless you kill the yeast and bacteria present using heat/chemicals/filtration before adding the fruit (this is what Lindemans does to make their lambics). If this seems too difficult you can add fruit juice to a plain sour beer in the glass (this is a good way to soften the beer for people who do not like something so dry and sour).

I generally like splitting a batch leaving half plain and adding fruit to the rest. This way I get two beers for the effort of one. It also makes for some interesting comparisons. Sometimes I like the fruited half more, other times the plain portion does it for me. I usually wait for at least six months before adding fruit, this gives me a chance to taste the beer and see which fruit I think would work well with it and it give the bugs a chance to get established so they are the ones fermenting the fruit sugars and not the primary yeast.



Bottling: Before bottling I wait until airlock activity has ceased, the gravity has not changed in at least a month, and the flavor is where I want it. I have never had an issue bottling while my beers still have a pellicle, but it can be an indication that something is going on. I would also be cautious bottling any sour beer with a gravity over 1.010 (unless it has a high ABV, or had other extenuating circumstances).

I generally reyeast with wine or neutral ale yeast at bottling. 2 grams of dry yeast rehydrated in 90-100 degree water is my standard rate for 5 gallons, but a little extra won't hurt anything. This ensures timely carbonation and not much change in flavor immediately after bottling. I generally use cane/beet/table/white sugar, it is cheap, effective, and doesn’t impart a flavor of its own. Candi and corn sugars are also fine choices, but tend to be a bit more expensive. I try to avoid using any variable agricultural products for priming like honey, maple syrup, or malt extract since it adds some guesswork (particularly when you are talking about a multiple microbe culture).

Some sour beers, particularly those aged in wood barrels or with the oak dowel/peg can be completely flat at bottling time. This is different than the usually assumed .5-.8 volumes of CO2 most priming calculators assume the beer is holding onto. As a result if your beer tastes wine flat you should consider adding some extra priming sugar (or be willing to accept a lower carbonation level than the your calculations might predict).

The carbonation level is up to you. Higher carbonation tends to increase the sense of acidity (dissolved carbon dioxide is carbonic acid) and give you the impression of body in very thin beers. In general I aim for moderate-low carbonation, but that is the way I like most of my beers. In the end it is just about what you think would taste good for your beer.

In my pale sour beers (especially those with wheat) I often get an odd cereal/cheerio finish for a few months after bottling that wasn’t there in the bottling bucket. It fades with time, but it is annoying while it lasts. In general if a sour beer doesn’t taste good give it more time (recently the brewer at Bullfrog Brewery told me how terrible his Gold Medal winning Beekeeper Honey Sour Saison was for several years, to the point he considered it lost, before it turned the corner).

Once the beer is bottled it will age like any other. Lower temps will slow aging, while higher temps will produce faster changes in the flavor. It is worth hanging onto bottles for many years. Most of my sours seem to be getting better and better as time goes on, some are now at nearly three years in the bottle.


General Tips: Be patient. Try to avoid taking samples too often, it introduces oxygen and steals good beer from your future self.

Get a new sour beer going every few months to build up a pipeline if you can. It is easy to look forward a few months to the next beer that will be ready, but it will drive you insane thinking about the fact that the beer you just brewed won't be ready to drink for at least a year. If you have a big enough system it just steal 5 gallons (or even less if you have some smaller fermenters) of wort now and then to sour. Having plenty of beers souring also opens up the world of blending (which pretty much every good production sour brewery does) when you have multiple batches ready around the same time.

Don’t skimp on ingredients. Spending a bit more now is worth it in the end, especially when you are investing such a huge amount of time/effort/thought into a beer. This is especially true of things like fruit, spices, and sugars, go to places that specialize in the ingredient, Ethnic Markets, Spice Shops, Farmer's Markets etc.

Make friends with other homebrewers interested in sours, particularly those who live near you. Try their beers and have them try yours, some of the best sours I have had have been fermented in the basements and closets of other homebrewers.

Try as many commercial sour beers (for inspiration and microbes) as you can and ask questions of any commercial brewer who makes sours you enjoy. Most of them are very passionate and happy to help an equally passionate homebrewer. Asking about technique rather than recipes will generally get you more useful information.

Take as many notes on your beers as you can. These will help you to avoid mistakes or recreate successes in the future. With sour beers your technique evolves slowly since the feedback loop takes years instead of weeks like clean beers. My sours have steadily gotten better, but I still have beers aging that I made mistakes (or miscalculations) on that I have fixed in more recent batches.

If you want a hoppy sour beer, go with dry hops right before bottling (or in the bottle or keg). This will give you the mature acid/ester profile with the fresh hop kick.

For much much much more on how to brew sour beers, read my book: American Sour Beers!

Resepte:
Beatification Batch 001 Clone - Wine Barrel Sour Pale based on Russian River's beer
Big Funky - High Gravity Sour
Bourbon Barrel Wee Heavy - Unintentionally Sour, but still tasty
Brett Pale Ale - 100% Brett A American Pale Ale
Deviant Cable Car - 10 gallons of pale oaty sour beer with Al B's Bugfarm
Cable Car Clone - Soured blend of Saison, Bier de Garde, and Lager
Bourbon Cherry Brett Dark Belgian - Inspired by Cuvee de Tomme
Flanders Pale Ale - Flanders Red without the Red, half aged on Pluots
Flanders Red Again - My second attempt at the style, starter for the wine barrel
Funky Dark Saison - With rosemary, orange peel, and caramelized raisins
Funky Dark Saison #2 - With black cardamom, and caramelized dates
Funky Flower - Honey, chamomile, wheat based sour
Funky Rye Mild - English mild with rye that took an unexpected turn
Inspired by Sebastian - 100% Brett C table saison
Inspired by Sebastian - 100% Brett A table saison
Lambic The First - My first (terrible) attempt at a Lambic
Lambic Mrk 2 - Me second, too strong, attempt at a Lambic
Lambic 3.0 - My first attempt with the traditional turbid mash
Mo' Betta Bretta Clone - 100% Brett C beer based on the Pizza Port beer
Mo' Betta Bretta Clone #2 - 100% Brett A beer based on the Pizza Port beer
No-boil Berliner Weisse - My first attempt at the style
No-boil Berliner Weisse 2 - Half with Cabernet juice
No-boil Berliner Weisse 3 - Half left at a Lambic OG, the rest watered down to the usual 1.033
Perpetuum Sour - A pale sour, solera aged in a red wine barrel
RodenTons - My first attempt at a Flanders Red, half aged on blackberries
Sour Bourbon Barrel Porter - A strong porter aged in a second use Bourbon Barrel
Sour Squash - Lightly spiced, sour, butternut squash, brown ale
Temptation Clone- Chardonnay spiked pale sour based on the beer from Russian River
Wine Barrel Flanders Red - My first truly barrel aged beer

Please post any additional suggestions/tips that you have discovered for brewing sour beers at home.