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Hoe om 'n vat op te blaas, en waarom

Hoe om 'n vat op te blaas, en waarom


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Omdat daar vuur is en bier wat ontplof, en dit is alles in slow-motion

Ja, ontploffende vate is wonderlik.

Ons moet erken, alhoewel ons dit so verkwistend vind, ons geniet dit om te sien hoe dinge opblaas (nog 'n rede waarom sjampanje -sjampanje baie lekker is). Soos die mense agter Rated RR (wat ook rye bier, bokswyn en maak sjampanje oop met 'n AK-47) besluit om te kyk of hulle met 'n ontploffende koord op 'n biervat kan tik.

Daar is baie toerusting en 'shoptalk' wat ons nie noodwendig verstaan ​​nie (nie 'n skare plofstofkundiges hier nie), maar die beeldmateriaal is redelik gaaf. Daar is baie gemorste bier (hartseer!), Vuur, dramatiese musiek en baie rook en stadig-bewegende ontploffing. Die gevolglike vernietigde vat is nie mooi nie. Wat 'n vermorsing, maar dit was vermaaklik. Kyk alles hieronder, en wees dan dankbaar dat u vriende net 'n vat oopmaak en 'n vathouer soos normale mense maak. En soms speel hulle Danger Can, maar selfs dan is dit nie so verkwistend soos hierdie nie.


Hoe om 'n vat op te blaas, en waarom - resepte

Te veel tuisbrouers word oorweldig deur resepontwerp en hou gevolglik by kits. Alhoewel kits soliede biere kan produseer, beteken dit dat u u eie resep kan skryf, sodat u die bier presies volgens u smaak kan aanpas. Baie brouers weet net nie waar om te begin nie, hoe om bestanddele te kies en hoe alles bymekaar pas nie. Hierdie pos handel nie oor die bestanddele of die proses nie (alhoewel ek albei noem), maar elkeen van my resepte gee 'n insig in hoekom ek spesifieke mout, hop, gis en tegnieke gekies het. Dit is 'n meta-pos oor die proses waardeur ek gaan elke keer as ek 'n resep skryf.

Hier is die 10 stappe wat ek deurmaak vir elke bondel wat ek brou.

U doelwit vir 'n bondel kan wees om die Russiese rivier Plinius die jongere te herskep, 'n bekroonde Berliner weisse te brou, die smaakprofiel van verskillende suikers te leer, 'n IPA in 'n ABV-pakket van 2,5% te berei of 'n seisoen op te stel wat geïnspireer is deur Nieu-Seeland. Wees versigtig om nie doelwitte te meng nie, kies een prioriteit en hou daarby! Om soortgelyke kommersiële biere te drink, kan veral nuttig wees om u teikenprofiel op te stel.

Begin deur die dinge te identifiseer wat u werklik sal sien. Wees so spesifiek as moontlik met betrekking tot voorkoms, geur, aroma, balans en mondgevoel. Hoeveel bitterheid, soetheid, piesang, naeltjie, brood, gebraai, sitrus, alkoholwarmte, koolzuur, ens. Wil jy hê? Vertaal die dinge dan in analitiese doelwitte waarmee u 'n resep kan bou: ABV, OG, FG, SRM's, IBU's en finale pH (gelukkig bied baie handwerkbrouerye hul doelwitte, net soos die BJCP -riglyne). Alhoewel dit nuttig is om te verstaan ​​hoe om elkeen van hierdie getalle met die hand te bereken, gebruik ek ProMash vir akkuraatheid en gemak.

Parameters kan u net so naby kry, 'n Duitse Pilsner en 'n saison kan op papier amper identies lyk, net soos 'n schwarzbier en Engelse portier! Navorsing oor smaakbydraes is in hierdie stadium noodsaaklik. Daar is insiggewende boeke, tydskrifartikels, blogplasings, forumdrade, podcasts, ens., Wat byna elke styl, brouery en geur dek.

Die beste brouers is gewoonlik brouers met kennis wat brou, neem die beste idees en verfyn en kombineer dit tot iets wat vir hul smaak en stelsel werk. Ek is altyd verbaas om dinge te lees soos: "Ek het nie 'n boek nodig om suur bier goed te brou nie." Ek lees en luister gereeld na iets wat selfs op tangentiële wyse aan die broei is, in die hoop om nuwe dinge of tegnieke te kry. Ek kan seker die meeste style goed brou, maar ek is altyd op soek na maniere om te verbeter!

Dit is geen skande om te begin met 'n resep wat iemand anders vervolmaak het en aan te pas by u smaak/stelsel nie! Af en toe is dit selfs gesond om 'n betroubare resep te braai wat nie soos een lyk wat jy ontwerp het nie, dit is maklik om vas te val deur dinge op 'n sekere manier uit gewoonte te doen, deur leidrade van iemand anders te neem, breek jou daaruit roet!

2. Identifiseer beperkings

As tuisbrouers het ons gewoonlik meer vryheid as kommersiële brouers wat die keuse van bestanddele betref. Ons kan sonder enige kompromie enige mout, gis en hop gebruik. Baie tuisbrouers word egter op ander maniere beperk: fermentasietemperatuur, waterprofiel, toerusting of tydsberekening. Soms is die regte antwoord dat die doelwit nie haalbaar is nie, gegewe die beperkings (bv. 'N keiserlike stout in drie weke, 'n seisoen met primêre fermentasie by 55 °F). As u nie tyd het om 'n gisvoorgereg te maak nie, moet u gedroogde gis (met sy hoër seltelling) 'n voorkeur beskou. Uittreksel met stroopkorrels is ook 'n beperking, want dit beperk beide fermenteerbaarheid en graankies.

Selfs as u die presiese resep van 'n brouery ontvang, kan dit veel meer verg as om die teiken te bereik, net om hul hoeveelheid te verminder om by u te pas. Pas die stelseldoeltreffendheid aan, pas die hop aan vir die groter bitterheidsontginning (veral uit die bubbelbad), pas die fermentasietemperatuur aan volgens die verskille in druk en meetkunde, en besluit hoe u 'n bourbonvat, Schaerbeek -kersies of huisbier vervang gis. Dit is 'n bietjie makliker om 'n resep van 'n ander tuisbrouwer om te skakel, maar dit verg soortgelyke oorwegings.

3. Bepaal bondelgrootte

Batchgrootte is nie 'n enkele nommer nie. Begin met die hoeveelheid bier wat u in vate of bottels wil drink, en werk agteruit. U moet u stelsel ken om akkuraat te voorspel hoeveel water u moet begin om die gewenste volume bier te produseer. Werk in 'n bietjie buffer as u kan, sodat u nie elke druppel vloeistof hoef op te vang nie.

Gebruik verskillende volumes vir verskillende (take):
Volume in die bottelemmer of vat (suiker)
+ Verlies as gevolg van afblaas, afval en vergis of dooie ruimte =
Volume in fermentor (spoedsnelheid)
+ Verliese aan absorpsie, breek en ketel dooie ruimte =
Volume in ketel aan die einde van kook (IBU's)
+ Verlies by opkook (verdamping) =
Volume in ketel aan die begin van kook (mash -doeltreffendheid, hoeveelheid graan)
+ Verlies aan korrelabsorpsie en dofspasie van die mash tun =
Gekombineerde mash/spatwater

Alhoewel u doelwitte vir al hierdie volumes kan projekteer, moet u konsekwente bier aanpas terwyl u meet wat dit werklik blyk te wees. As u van plan was dat die bondel vyf liter sou oplewer, maar uiteindelik 4,75 liter in die bottelhouer beland, voeg slegs genoeg suiker by vir 4,75 liter!

4. Hanteer spesiale bestanddele

Alhoewel die basisbier uiters belangrik is, ongeag die vreemde bestanddele wat u byvoeg, oorweeg ek altyd die spesiale bestanddele (alhoewel u in 'n ideale wêreld die basiese bier sou inbel voordat u minder tradisionele geure of fermenteerbare bestanddele byvoeg). As daar nie vrugte, groente, speserye, kruie, hout, sterk drank, ens. Is nie, gaan dan na stap 5.

As 'n algemene reël, hoe meer ek die smaak van die bestanddeel wil proe, hoe later byvoeg ek dit. As die geursel nie beduidende fermenteerbare produkte bevat nie (bv. Koffie, sitrus), steek ek dit 'n dag of twee in die bier wat gereed is om te verpak, net voor ek vat of bottel. Deur direk in die voltooide bier toe te dien, kan alkohol en water saamwerk om die belangrikste aromate te onttrek. Blootstelling aan hitte en fermentasie vervelige duidelike aromate, wat 'n meer geïntegreerde karakter gee wat goed werk vir die subtiliteit in Belgiese styl. Aan die einde van die kook het ek 'n verfrissende geur gekry, terwyl ek 'n pampoenbier met 'n speserytee in die bottelemmer sou doseer.

Dit is nog 'n belangrike kans vir navorsing, hoewel kookboeke en skemerkelkresepte hierdie keer veral nuttig is. Bloei kakaopoeier in warm water, rooster chilipepers in 'n droë pan en gebruik sitrus sonder die pit. Die tradisionele metodes wat deur brouers gebruik word, is moontlik nie ideaal nie, dus beperk u nie tot hulle nie!

Met eksperimentele bestanddele word 'n meer beheerde metode verkies. Speserytee, tinkture (alkoholekstrakte), versnit, stadige toevoegings na smaak, verminder alles die risiko van 'n ongebalanseerde bier in vergelyking met raai met 'n vroeë byvoeging. As u die bier verouder, hoe langer u kan wag voordat dit gegeur word, hoe varser sal die geure wees wanneer die bier gereed is om te drink.

5. Kies Fermentables

Die doel OG (vanaf stap #1), u gewenste vooraf kookvolume (vanaf stap #3) en geprojekteerde mash-doeltreffendheid vir u stelsel vir bier met soortgelyke swaartekrag (neem aan dat hoe laer die totale water-tot-graan verhouding is) die doeltreffendheid van die mengsel is) is die drie belangrikste faktore om die hoeveelheid fermenteerbare hoeveelhede te bepaal.

As u suiker byvoeg, bepaal die hoeveelheid as 'n persentasie van die swaartekrag (meer as die persentasie van die totale gewig van fermenteerbare produkte). Om 'n bydrae van 15% sukrose deur swaartekrag te verkry, sal 'n brouer wat 80% mash -doeltreffendheid behaal, 10,4% tafelsuiker by gewig byvoeg, terwyl 'n brouer met 'n effektiwiteit van 60% dieselfde sal doen met 8% tafelsuiker. Albei gebruik dieselfde gewig suiker, die persentasie verander omdat die brouer met 'n hoër doeltreffendheid minder mout gebruik.

U moet ook die tydsberekening van aromatiese suikers in ag neem. Heuning word die beste bewaar vir na die aroma-skrop van primêre fermentasie. Alle suikers wat by bier van meer as 10% ABV gevoeg word, word ook die beste weerhou tot na fermentasiepieke om die aanvanklike osmotiese druk op die gis te verminder. Vir suiwer suikers in bier met matige swaartekrag, voeg dit by die ketel terwyl die wort inloop.

Bereken vervolgens die totale hoeveelheid graan wat nodig is om die oorspronklike gravitasiedoelwit te bereik. Bepaal dan die tipe en hoeveelheid spesialiteitsmoute. Doen dit op grond van gewig, eerder as 'n persentasie van die graanrekening. Biere met 'n laer swaartekrag is geneig om 'n hoër persentasie spesialismoute en byvoegsels te hê as sterker bier omdat dit minder basismout benodig. Die hoeveelheid bleek mout in 'n garswyn bied baie moutheid, liggaam, kleur, ens. Sonder veel hulp, terwyl 'n bier met 'n lae alkohol dun en sag kan smaak sonder geroosterde, geroosterde of gekarameliseerde moute. 15-20% karamelmout in 'n 1.040 bleekbier kan perfek wees, maar dieselfde gewig is slegs 5% van die graan in 'n garswyn. Alhoewel ek die graanpersentasies behou as ek skaal vir veranderinge in doeltreffendheid of volume.

Die keuse van suikers en moute is een van die vele gebiede waar u kennis en navorsing die sleutel sal wees. Bier brou en proe met net een of twee moute, kou op mout en lees oor tradisionele kombinasies. Wees spesifiek in u keuses en hou rekord; nie alle geroosterde gars of kristal 60 word gemaak nie, dieselfde produkte van verskillende maltsters lewer unieke bydraes tot die wort.

Hoe nuwer jy 'n styl het, hoe eenvoudiger moet die graanrekening wees. Te veel verskillende moute gekombineer sonder vaardigheid sal tot gevolg hê dat 'n blanderbier gelyk is. Terwyl 'n spesifieke donker mout meer koffie, sjokolade of verkool kan leun, sal drie willekeurig gekeurde en in gelyke dele gemeng word, smaak, bruin en 8221, dit wil sê onduidelik gebraai. Daar is ingewikkelde graanrekeninge wat heerlike biere produseer, maar hierdie soort formulering verg aansienlike vaardigheid en herhaalde brouery.

Met die suiker- en spesialiteitsmout bepaal, bly basmout oor. Kies een wat die moutgeure ondersteun, en wat genoeg ensiematiese krag bevat om die byvoegsels en spesialismout (sowel as sy eie stysels) om te skakel, gegewe die persentasie van die graanrekening. Terwyl ek Maris Otter en München in donker biere liefhet, het hulle moontlik alleen nie genoeg ensiemkrag om die helfte van hul eie gewig in ongesoute graan- en spesialismoute om te sit nie (sodat u 'n paar pond ligter mout by die Lintner -skaal kan byvoeg) . In sommige gevalle is die laaste oorweging 'n klein toevoeging van ontpitde geroosterde mout vir kleuraanpassing.

As u begin, is 'n eenvoudige reël om u mout uit die land te kry wat die resep geïnspireer het. Namate u egter meer ervaring opdoen, sal u waarskynlik aan malte dink in terme van die geure wat hulle bydra. Sommige van my gunsteling minder tradisionele kombinasies is: Simpsons Extra Dark Crystal in bocks, Amerikaanse bleekmout in quads en Duitse CaraVienna in hoppige Amerikaanse pale ale.

6. Kies die Hop Bill

Begin met opvlam (hop-stand) byvoeging en werk na buite. Vlam-uit-hop gee 'n bietjie bitterheid en aromas, maar hul belangrikste bydrae is 'n wonderlike versadigde hopgeur. Droë hoep bied hoofsaaklik geurmiddels en kom eendimensioneel voor sonder 'n laat toevoeging aan die warm kant (die enigste uitsondering is 'n suur bier met droë hoep), so ek kombineer dit byna altyd met vlamhoppies. As ek 'n sagter hopkarakter wil hê, maak ek die laaste hop 'n byvoeging van 5-15 minute. Vir hopige biere met 'n groot hop-stand en droë hop, vind ek nie laat gekookte hop voordelig (of ten minste doeltreffend nie). Ek gebruik standaard dieselfde hoeveelheid hop vir alle smaak-/aroma -toevoegings (alhoewel ek goeie resultate gehad het).

Ek gebruik selde meer as drie hopvariëteite in totaal tussen die laat kook en droë hop toevoegings. Soos met spesiale moute, sonder te veel vaardigheid, veroorsaak die byvoeging van te veel hopvariëteite 'n generiese “groen ” hoppigheid eerder as lae kompleksiteit.

Die laaste hop -byvoeging om te bereken, is die bitter toevoeging, genoeg om die IBU -teiken te bereik. Dit kan 'n relatief algemene alfa-suur variëteit wees, nie bekommerd oor die byvoeging van laat kook nie. In die meeste gevalle word ek bitter met 'n byvoeging van 60 minute, maar 'n bietjie effens voor of na 60 minute, of 'n eerste wort -byvoeging kan ook werk. In baie biere, veral dié met ander sterk geure, is dit my enigste toevoeging tot hop.

7. Beplan die fermentasie

Noudat ons meestal agtergekom het wat die wort sal wees, moet ons die transformasie in bier beplan. Dit beteken dat 'n gisstam, spoedsnelheid en fermentasietemperatuur gekies word. Gelukkig word ons nou oorweldig deur die keuse van gis-stam. Vyftien jaar gelede was daar eintlik net 'n paar laboratoriums wat vloeibare gis vir tuisbrouers vervaardig het, nie net het hulle die stamme wat hulle produseer verdubbel nie, maar 10 nuwe laboratoriums het oopgemaak, en die kwaliteit/verskeidenheid van droë gis het ook aansienlik verbeter!

U moet seker maak dat die alkoholtoleransie van die soort wat u kies, vanaf stap #1 bo u doelwit is. Die temperatuur van die stam se fermentasie moet ook binne die bereik wees wat u beskikbaar het. Uiteindelik (en die belangrikste) moet die geure wat geproduseer word, ooreenstem met u doelwitte vir die gistkarakter. Oorweeg die verswakking, maar weet dat u dit kan aanpas met die mash -profiel.

Dit kan handig wees om die beskrywings en resensies van kommersiële gis te lees, maar bier wat beter gefermenteer is, kan beter proe om die resultate self te evalueer! Homebrew is veral nuttig hiervoor, aangesien dit u in staat stel om spesifieke vrae aan die brouer te stel oor die stootsnelheid, temperatuur, beluchting en tydsberekening.

Dit is handig om 'n spesie te kies wat gebruik word in 'n bier wat u geniet, en om verskeie bondels te fermenteer om 'n verhouding te vorm. Gaan dit uit as u nie die temperatuur oor 70 °F verhoog nie? Word dit 'n bubblegum as jy nie genoeg selle opslaan nie? Onderbreek verswakking en word dit dan hervat wanneer dit 1.020 bereik? Baat dit by boetes na fermentasie?

Dit is ook 'n goeie tyd om na te dink oor hoeveel koolzuur jy wil hê. Ontdek nie die suikersuiker in hierdie stadium nie, maar kies 'n doelvolume koolstofdioksied, gebaseer op styl en voorkeur. Besluit ook of langdurige veroudering, hoë alkohol, hoë flokkulasie, boetes of agteruitgang beteken dat reistyding nodig is.

8. Bereken die waterprofiel

Herhaal na my: "Let nie op waterprofiele van ander stede as u eie nie!" Brouers behandel hul water oral, sodat die nabootsing van hul bronwater sonder hul aanpassings 'n goeie kans het om die kwaliteit van u bier te verlaag. Twee van my ergste groepe is gebrou met waterprofiele volgens die boek van Burton-on-Trent en Westvleteren.

Dit is baie meer effektief om u water te behandel met die spesifieke resep en 'n doel voor oë. Dit is goed om ten minste 50 PPM kalsium vir alle style te hê om 'n goeie styselomskakeling, breekvorming en gisgesondheid te verseker. Vir bleek bier verkies ek dat die karbonaat en natrium so laag as moontlik is. Dit is die rede waarom ek normaalweg nie my teikenwaterprofiel saam met elke resep plaas nie; ek beskou dit nie as ideaal nie. Vir bleek/vurige bier beland my karbonaat ongeveer 50 PPM, maar ek wil nie hê dat iemand meer karbonaat by hul IPA's voeg as hul water minder as dit het nie. Ek is nie bereid om 'n omgekeerde osmose-stelsel of 20 liter gedistilleerde water te koop elke keer as ek brou nie, maar ek sny gereeld my koolstofgefilterde kraanwater met 50% met gedistilleerde om die koolstof te verminder van 100 PPM gemiddeld.

Uittreksel bevat die minerale uit die water wat gebruik word om dit te produseer. As gevolg hiervan is lae-mineraalwater ideaal vir hierdie bier.

Die geurione (sulfaat, chloried en natrium) beïnvloed nie brou of fermentasie nie, sodat hulle op enige tydstip ingedien kan word, insluitend om te proe by die verpakking. Sulfaat voeg droogheid toe en verhoog die persepsie van bitterheid, chloried verhoog die volheid van die liggaam en die rondheid van die geur, natrium verhoog die mout-soetheid (maar kan bots met hoë sulfaat). Moenie bekommerd wees dat u hiper-presies is met u doelwitte nie, want die mout dra dieselfde minerale by en die menslike smaak is in elk geval nie presies genoeg om 'n paar dele per miljoen se verskille te proe nie.

U het moontlik 'n ander waterprofiel vir die mash en spuit (water moet oor die algemeen sagter en suurder wees as puree).

U kan suuraanvullings skat (met behulp van Bru ’n Water of soortgelyke), maar dit is altyd die beste om 'n pH -waarde te neem en net soveel by te voeg as wat nodig is om u teiken te bereik. As u ook dink dat u karbonaat moet byvoeg om die pH te verhoog, bereken die hoeveelheid koeksoda of kalk wat benodig word, maar wag om dit by te voeg totdat 'n lesing aandui dat dit nodig is. Ek streef na 'n effens laer pH vir bleek bier as vir donker biere (insluitend puree, kook en voltooide bier). Gemiddeld by kamertemperatuur is die mediaan vir my 5,4 vir die mash, 5,2 vir die einde van die kook en 4,4 vir die bier by die verpakking.

Ek sal ook gisvoedingstowwe en ketels in hierdie stap insluit. Gistvoedingstof is gewoonlik nie nodig nie, maar een met spoorminerale is 'n goedkoop versekering (veral as u 'n groot hoeveelheid gedistilleerde of RO -water gebruik). Op dieselfde manier is ketelafwerkings, soos Ierse mos en Whirlfloc, nie noodsaaklik nie, maar in kombinasie met bubbel-/afsakking help dit om meer breek in die ketel agter te laat. Die gevolg is meer ruimte in die fermentor vir bier, en minder proteïen wat in die gis gemeng word om te oes. Ek voeg 1/2 teelepel Wyeast -voedingsstof en 1/2 Whirloc -tablet per vyf liter by, met vyf minute in die kook vir byna alle bondels.

9. Bepaal die Mash -profiel

Die rystemperature is die laaste hefboom om te trek. Met aanpassings hier kan u die verswakking van die geselekteerde gisstam verhoog of verlaag. Een van die grootste nadele van uittreksel is dat u hierdie besluit aan die vervaardiger van uittreksel afstaan.

My duimreël is dat die basmout by 152 °F tot 'n gemiddelde gemiddelde verswakking van giste sal lei, die verhoging met 1 °F verminder die oënskynlike verswakking met ongeveer 1%en die verlaging met 1 °F verhoog die verswakking met ongeveer 1% . Dit is nie onfeilbaar nie, en geld slegs van 144 °F tot 160 °F, maar is 'n goeie genoeg balpark. Doen hierdie berekening slegs op grond van die uittreksel wat uit die mash verkry word (veronderstel dat suiwer suikers soos sukrose/dextrose nie die FG sal verhoog nie, en onfermenteerbare suikers soos laktose sal hul hele bydrae tot die FG voeg, en die meeste ander suikers sal iewers tussen ).

As jy kristalmout byvoeg, sal die verswakking effens verminder word, maar nie soveel as wat baie brouers vermoed nie. Gepureerde gelatineerde styselagtige byvoegsels (bv. Gevlokte, gebraaide of vooraf gekookte rou korrels) het nie 'n groot invloed op die fermenteerbaarheid nie, aangesien hul stysels aan dieselfde ensieme blootgestel word tydens die stysel uit die mout self.

Die meeste moute wat algemeen beskikbaar is, baat nie by 'n stappermash nie, maar as u 'n resep inskakel, wil u in sommige gevalle eksperimenteer met proteïene, ferulicum, beta-glukan of meervoudige versakking. Afkooktappelpuree kan 'n mate van voordeel op die kantlyn wees, maar verskeie eksperimente oor die jare het gesuggereer dat hul bydraes nie vir die gemiddelde verhemelte duidelik is nie.

10. Brou, Smaak, en Rebrew

Doen altyd 'n finale hersiening van al u besluite om seker te maak dat die resep in sy geheel sinvol is voordat u u bestanddele kry.

Ten spyte van u beste pogings, gaan alles in die meeste gevalle nie volgens plan nie. Moenie huiwer om aan te pas, te vergroot of te herevalueer namate die proses ontvou nie. As u mash-doeltreffendheid byvoorbeeld hoër is as wat verwag is, moet u die vooraf-hop met 'n gravitasiemeting identifiseer, sodat u die byvoeging van die hop kan verdun en verhoog om meer wortel te produseer, of om 'n ander wortel te verdun en af ​​te haal. As u eerste toevoeging van droë hop nie die intense geurprofiel lewer wat u wou hê nie, voeg 'n tweede dosis by. As die gis nie soos verwag verswak nie, plaas 'n meer verswakende stam.

Die grootste verbeterings is die kritiese evaluering van die voltooide bier en die hele proses weer begin! Pas u resep aan om nader aan u teiken te kom, of pas u teiken aan as u dit bereik en besef dat dit nie presies was wat u wou hê nie.


Die Drunken Lizard Pub

Ek het nou eers die spel begin ondersoek. Ek het 'n vat agter 'n huis in die stad gevind en het al verskeie kere in my gat opgeblaas en probeer om dit met my swaard te slaan. Ek kan geen ander manier sien om dit te ontplof nie. Miskien 'n boog- en pylstelstel koop? Klippe gooi? Kan iemand my hier 'n idee gee?

Ek wonder ook hoekom die vat agter hierdie huis wat gesluit is, sit. Moet ek die vaatjie skuif en die huis oopblaas om te sien wat daar verwyder moet word? Moet ek die vaatjie verkoop? Aan wie?

Enige antwoorde sal wonderlik wees. Cheers!

xolotl Luitenant
Plasings: 777 Aangesluit: 21 Augustus 2008, 13:54

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur xolotl & raquo 18 Julie 2010, 18:47

U kan vate gebruik om deure sag te maak, maar ek weet nie of dit genoeg skade sal aanrig om 'n deur heeltemal oop te blaas nie.

Daar is 'n paar plekke regdeur die spel waar 'n swak gedeelte van 'n muur met 'n vat uitmekaar geblaas kan word (dit is effens duidelik dat daar nie sulke plekke in Eastwillow is nie (die eerste klein dorpie waarin u woon)). Dit kan ook nuttig wees om vyande te probeer opstel om naby hulle te wees en dit dan te verlaat. Een van die vroeëre take wat u kry, kan met 'n paar vate baie makliker gemaak word.

Ek weet nie of iemand dit gaan koop nie, maar dit het wel 'n nut.

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur JfpOne23 & raquo 18 Julie 2010, 19:03

Dankie vir die vinnige en nuttige antwoord. Ek het pas die .pdf gevind in die spel installasie gids. duh. Gewoonlik het Steam 'n handmatige skakel op die bladsy wat u gebruik om die spel te begin (meestal die meeste), maar ek het nie een vir Eschalon II gevind nie. Bly ek het gegrawe.

Weereens baie dankie en ek sien u met meer vrae

Kreador Freeaxe -generaal -majoor
Plasings: 2391 Aangesluit: 26 April 2008, 15:44

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur Kreador Freeaxe & raquo 18 Julie 2010, 19:27

Maak almal dood, laat die sysadmin dit regkry.

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur JfpOne23 & raquo 18 Julie 2010, 21:08

O ja. hy word mal En dankie vir die idee oor die 2de kruitvat. Die een wat ek probeer het, het die wag net kwaad gemaak.

Hoe kan ek nou die stadsbeampte se aandag aflei om by die stadskas te kom?

CrazyBernie Kaptein Magnate
Plasings: 1463 Aangesluit: 29 November 2007, 13:11

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur CrazyBernie & raquo 18 Julie 2010, 21:35

JfpOne23 het geskryf: O ja. hy word mal En dankie vir die idee oor die 2de kruitvat. Die een wat ek probeer het, het die wag net kwaad gemaak.

Nou, hoe kan ek die stadsbeampte se aandag aflei om by die stadskas te kom?

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur JfpOne23 & raquo 19 Julie 2010, 07:10

heh. die vate ja. Goeie idee. Ek het die vate in die Well -soeke na die priester gebruik om die rotte in 'n enkele kolom -aanval in die voorste gang te kanaliseer. Werk soos 'n sjarme.

Gelukkig het ek nog 3 vate om die truuk met die klerk te probeer.

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur Asgard die Ouer & raquo 19 Julie 2010, 07:27

U benodig meer vate poeier, hoe verder u in die spel kom!
Daar is baie skatte en gebiede wat agter mure toegesluit kan word wat kan opblaas!

Geniet dit om hulle almal te vind!

Geverfde luitenant
Plasings: 785 Aangesluit: 23 April 2009, 15:09 uur

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur Painted Lady & raquo 19 Julie 2010, 15:59 uur

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur JfpOne23 & raquo 19 Julie 2010, 16:09

Dragonlady Illustrious
Plasings: 1466 Aangesluit: 29 Augustus 2006, 14:38 uur Plek: CA, VSA of Knumythia

Re: Hoe om 'n poeiervat op te blaas?

Plaas deur Dragonlady & raquo 19 Julie 2010, 17:27

Die wag ignoreer jou as jy goed uit die sekretaresse se plek steel. En as u versigtig is oor hoe naby u die deur gaan, is daar geen probleem nie. As u later wil, kan u mense bekoor met 'n drankie/towerkuns, en as dit afneem, hou hulle weer van u. Net lastig om om hulle te gaan om by ander geboue uit te kom om dinge te verkoop.

As u die wagte kwaad gemaak het, lok hom net 'n entjie uit die stad uit en reis vinnig terug na die volgende kaart, of ver genoeg verloor u hom om by die herberg te kom of om te praat/verkoop/goed te koop.


Gis in 'n Corneliusvat

Die meeste plaaslike tuisgemaakte winkels verkoop gebruikte Cornelius -vate teen baie billike pryse. Vate van 19 liter (19 liter) is die algemeenste en is ook die goedkoopste. Daar is ook 2,5-liter (9,5-L), 3-gallon (11-L) en selfs 10- en 15-gallon (38- en 57-L) Cornelius-vate, maar dit is almal baie minder algemeen en kos 'n paar keer meer as 'n standaard vat van 19 liter.

As u nuut is by Cornelius -vate, is die eerste ding wat u wil doen nadat u 'n gebruikte vat gekoop het, dit deeglik skoon en ook al die rubber seëls vervang. Hierdie vate is byna uitsluitlik gebruik om verskillende soorte soda te bedien, en die enigste dele wat u nie goed genoeg kan skoonmaak om die oorblywende koeldrank smaak te verwyder nie, is die rubber seëls. 'N Volledige aanvulling van vervangende seëls kos ongeveer $ 5. Dit neem net 'n paar minute om seëls uit te ruil. Hierdie stap in die voorbereiding van 'n gebruikte vat is ononderhandelbaar-moet dit nie oorslaan nie! Ek vervang ook die kleppe op gebruikte vate, maar dit is nie nodig nie, solank die vat druk hou. Ek is net paranoïes.

Spoel die binnekant van u vat deeglik uit om alles wat daar was, te verwyder (gewoonlik 'n klein hoeveelheid ontsmettingsoplossing). Meng 19 liter oplossing van B-Brite of ander suurstofgebaseerde skoonmaakmiddel (soos Oxi-Clean) in 'n emmer en gooi 'n bietjie daarvan in 'n klein plastiekhouer (Tupperware of soortgelyke). Gebruik 'n 7⁄8 duim diep sokkel of sekel sleutel om die gas-in en vloeistof-uit poste los te maak en te verwyder. Verwyder en gooi die rubber seëls op die paaltjies weg. Verwyder die kleppe van die klep uit die paaltjies. Verwyder en gooi nou die groot rubber seël rondom die vat se deksel weg, en skroef ook die aflosklep van die deksel af. Verwyder ook albei dipbuise en gooi weer die o-ringe van rubber weg (figuur 1 toon verskeie van hierdie dele).

Neem dit alles (paaltjies, poppets, deksel, dipbuise en ontluchtingsklep) en gooi dit in die klein houer skoonmaakoplossing. Terwyl die dele van die vat week, gooi die emmer vol skoonmaakoplossing in die vat en laat dit ook sit. Vir skoonmaakdoeleindes is dit makliker om die dipbuis aan die kant van die vloeistof weer in die vat te plaas, aangesien dit redelik lank is. Laat alles vir ongeveer 15 minute goed deurdrenk, sodat die oorblywende vullis wat daar is, loskom.

Na die week, voeg die nuwe rubber seëls by die paaltjies, deksel en dipbuise. Dien 'n baie dun laag “ keg smeermiddel ” toe op die nuwe rubberonderdele voordat u dit installeer. Dit sal help om die rubber nie uit te droog nie, maar ook om 'n lugdigte seël te hou as die vat onder druk is. (Vaat smeermiddel is 'n smeermiddel van voedsel en is beskikbaar by die meeste tuisgereedskapwinkels wat trekapparaat voorraad het.) Plaas die dipbuise weer vas en maak die paaltjies weer vas en draai dit vas (onthou om die kleppe weer in paaltjies voordat dit aan die vat vasgeskroef word). Maak die deksel vas en sluit dit terug en stel die ontstekingsklep terug. Skud die vat goed vir 30 sekondes tot 'n minuut om 'n volledige reinigingskontak op alle binne -dele te verseker. Volg op dieselfde dag dieselfde basiese prosedure om die vat skoon te maak. U sal ook die vat moet ontsmet met u eie ontsmettingsmiddel.

Haal die gas uit

Vate is ontwerp lugdig, en natuurlik het ons 'n manier nodig om die CO2 wat tydens fermentasie ontstaan, vry te laat. Dit kan op 'n baie eenvoudige, eenvoudige manier bereik word met minimale koste en met behulp van bestaande vaatkomponente. Hier is 'n lys van wat u nodig het:

• 'n “Gas In ” ontkoppel passtuk met slanghek
• 'n metaalslangklem (dit is opsioneel)
• 'n kort buislengte
• 'n glas- of plastiekhouer (soos 'n ou pot of growwer)
• anti-skuim middel

Vir fermentasie, verwyder die kort kantbuis van die gaskant. Heg die “Gas In ” -koppelstuk aan die “in ” -pos op die vat. Skuif nou die buis op die slanghek van die ontkoppelaar. Vul u pot of growwer ongeveer halfvol met 'n oplossing van die ontsmettingsmiddel van u keuse. Steek die ander kant van die buis in die growler en u is gereed om te begin.

Wat van blowoff?

U het waarskynlik opgemerk dat hierdie opset baie ooreenstem met 'n tipiese “blowoff ” -reëling wat met 'n karboy gebruik word. Alhoewel dit soortgelyk lyk, werk die klein deursnee van die toebehore en die buise nie baie goed vir die stukkies hop en gestolde rommel wat algemeen voorkom in die skuim wat tydens hoë kräusen uitgestoot word nie. Dit geld veral vir kragtige fermentasies met die beste gewasstamme, soos byvoorbeeld Wyeast 3333 Duitse koring. Om 'n groot ontploffing te vermy, is daar 'n paar truuks wat ons kan gebruik. Boonop kan u die ingewande van die tenk en die gas in die koppeling verwyder, wat die deurgang van kreusen- en hopdeeltjies moontlik maak, tensy u heelblomhoppe gebruik het, wat nog steeds die pyp kan verstop en groot kan veroorsaak probleme.

Die volume van die vat is 19 liter, en dit beteken dat ons 'n bietjie minder as dit vir fermentasie moet vermy om probleme te vermy. Skiet ongeveer 17 liter in die vat. Deur baie minder wort as dit te gebruik, kan ons heeltemal afblaas. Maar dit is nie 'n wenslike opsie vir 5-liter (19-L) groepe nie. Dus, in plaas daarvan om 'n kleiner volume bier te fermenteer, gebruik 'n voedsel-skuim-middel wat Fermcap-S genoem word, om die hoeveelheid kräse wat teenwoordig is tydens die fermentasie te verminder. Fermcap-S is wyd beskikbaar by baie tuisgemaakte winkels en posbestellings. Die aktiewe bestanddeel is dimethylpolysiloxane, wat ook gebruik word om die aktiewe bestanddeel in sommige vry-oor-die-toonbank medisyne, soos Gas-X (simetikon), te maak. Gebruik drie of vier druppels per liter (3,8 L) bier om die groot skuimkop van kräusen te verwyder en hou die gas los van deeltjies. Add the Fermcap-S directly into the keg after you’ve transferred the cooled wort but before you pitch the yeast. The Fermcap-S will settle out after primary fermentation and will be left behind after racking.

If you already brew larger batches or would like to try going bigger, splitting the batch into two or more 5-gallon (19-L) Cornelius kegs is a great way to go. Start off with a batch size of between 8 and 9 gallons (30 and 34 L) and then split them into two kegs. This also lets you try the same recipe with multiple yeast strains for testing and comparison.

Racking with gas

One of the most convenient features of using a keg for fermenting is that you can use CO2 to transfer beer from primary to secondary. This process is closed and does not rely on gravity or siphoning. To do this, some brewers like to cut about 3⁄4 of an inch (2 cm) off the end of the liquid dip tube to avoid picking up yeast from the bottom of the keg. Others just bend the dip tube away from the center-bottom of the keg. I leave my dip tubes fully intact and just discard the first few ounces of cloudy, yeasty beer that comes out when the transfer starts. The choice is yours as all methods work fine.

Whether you plan to transfer to a carboy or a keg, you’ll want to avoid transferring the trub at the bottom of the fermenter. To do that, hook up a CO2 cylinder to the “Gas in” disconnect and adjust the regulator to minimum pressure. Connect some tubing to the “Liquid out” disconnect and slip the other end into a jar or other container. Slowly turn on the gas and watch as the yeast and trub are ejected. Keep an eye on the discharge and turn the gas off as soon as the effluent clears up. And now on to racking.

If you secondary in a carboy, use a carboy cap with a racking cane through the center opening and remove the covering cap on the other stem. Connect the racking cane to the “Liquid out” disconnect on the keg with some beverage tubing. Depending on how snug the connections are (or aren’t), you may want to use hose clamps to secure the tubing. Connect a CO2 cylinder to the “Gas in” side of the keg, and you’re ready to transfer.

Set the CO2 regulator at the minimum PSI possible before opening the valve. Only a very small amount of pressure is needed to push the beer, and any more than just a little could make a big mess or unduly agitate the beer. You may not be able to hear any gas entering the keg, and it may take several seconds for the beer to begin to flow. You also may not see the pressure register on the regulator gauge, but that’s okay. Once enough pressure builds up in the keg, the beer will flow out into the carboy.

You can also use the same basic procedure above to transfer directly to another keg. Connect the “Liquid out” on one keg to the “Liquid out” on the other keg. Be sure to open the relief valve on the receiving keg to allow the displaced air in the keg to vent. When transferring to another keg, you can go a little higher on the CO2 pressure to speed up the transfer.

Racking with gravity

If you don’t have a kegerator setup up and running, you can use a simple siphon to transfer from the keg to a carboy or another keg for secondary fermentation (or directly to the bottling bucket if you do extended primary fermentations). Just use a racking cane in the keg and start a siphon. Nice and easy.

Kegs as secondary fermenters

Cornelius kegs also make excellent secondary fermenters. Just transfer the beer to a keg after primary, close the lid, and pressurize it with about 15 to 20 PSI to make sure the lid seal seats properly. Every few days, vent the keg via the pressure release valve. There will be some residual fermentation going on that will create a small amount of CO2, as well as some leftover CO2 that was dissolved during primary fermentation. Not venting this excess gas won’t be a huge problem because the keg is rated for pressure far beyond what will occur in secondary fermentation, but too much pressure may cause some yeast strains to prematurely flocculate. This is a bigger issue in primary fermentation, but could conceivably have a negative impact on bulk aging.


4 thoughts on &ldquo Homebrew Hacks: The Art of the Blow Off Tube &rdquo

I’ve been using a blow off tube on all of my brews to avoid the potential for a disastrous mess. No downside. Only peace of mind during your fermentation.

I had a stopper blow out even with a blow-off tube. I was using (as I remember) a 1/4″ tube fitted into the drilled stopper hole, which is probably about the size of an airlock stem. I had transferred all the wort, hops included, into the fermenter. Maybe the moral is to use a very large tube (eg 1″ tube directly into the carboy opening) or strain the hops out.

I use a blowoff tube for every batch until high activity falls, then install a regular 3 piece airlock until done.

I use a use a 1″ tube directly into the carboy for secondary when I’m expecting high activity. As was said before, no downside.


How to Blow Up a Keg, and Why - Recipes

I was inspired by coaching one of my coworkers through his first batch of homebrew (an English bitter) to write up a list of the mistakes that many new homebrewers make. Several of these are things I did on early batches, while others I have tasted at homebrew at club meetings. Many of these issues stem from poor kit instructions, bad homebrew shop advice, and common sense that just doesn’t work out.

1. Using the sanitizer that comes with a beer kit. This powdered sanitizer is slow and not especially effective. Instead get a no-rinse sanitizer like Star-San or Iodophor, which are faster and easier to use. Sanitize everything that touches your beer post-boil, and make sure it is carefully cleaned after each use (sanitizers are most effective on scrupulously-clean scratch-free surfaces). Keeping wild microbes out of your beer is the single most important step to brewing solid beer.

2. Starting with a recipe that is strong or unusual. Brewing a big complex beer is lots of fun, but play it safe on your first batch and brew something simple. High alcohol beers require more yeast and time. Interesting adjuncts add complexity to the recipe and process. These are things you don’t want to deal with on your first batch, so keep it easy.

3. Brewing with unfiltered, chlorine-containing tap water. If you are on a municipal water supply odds are that it contains either chlorine or chloramines. To remove them you can either charcoal filter (I use a Camco 40631) or treat your water with metabisulfite, or alternatively use bottled water. One of the most common off-flavors I taste at homebrew club meetings is medicinal chlorophenol, which is formed by the combination of chlorine in the water or sanitizer and phenols from malt and yeast.

4. Squeezing the grain bag after steeping. This releases tannins, which give the body a rough texture. Steep your grains in a small amount of water (no more than three quarts per pound) and then rinse them by either pouring hot water over the grain bag or dipping the grain bag into a second pot of hot water. Redigeer: I've had a couple people dispute squeezing being an issue in the comments. I've tasted some tannin-y beer from new homebrewers, but maybe it was just from a high water to grain steeping ratio. I'll have to squeeze the grain bag into a glass and have a taste the next time I brew an extract beer.

5. Using liquid yeast. "Pitchable" liquid yeast cultures barely have enough cells to ferment a standard gravity beer on the day they are packaged, and their cells die quickly from there. A high quality 11.5 g package of dried yeast starts with as much as twice the cells as a fresh package of yeast from either Wyeast or White Labs, and retains high cell viability for much longer. While Fermentis, for example, claims a minimum of 6 billion cells per gram at packaging, the actual number tends to be much higher. Liquid yeast can produce great beers, but require a starter unless you are getting extremely fresh yeast and brewing a low-alcohol beer.

6. Not aerating the wort adequately. It takes several minutes of shaking for the chilled wort to absorb the ideal amount of oxygen to allow the yeast to complete a healthy growth phase. The healthier your yeast cells are the cleaner and quicker they will complete the fermentation.

7. Pitching when the side of the pot or fermentor feels “cool enough.” Use a sanitized thermometer to check the actual temperature of the wort before you add the yeast. Pitching when the wort is above 100 F is rare, but will kill the yeast. Ideally the temperature should be at or below your target fermentation temperature to allow the temperature to rise as the yeast grows and ferments. You can pre-chill the sanitized water you use to top-off after the boil to help bring the temperature down.

8. Fermenting at too high of a temperature. Take note of the ambient temperature of the room the beer is fermenting in, but realize that at the peak of fermentation the yeast can raise the temperature of the beer by as much as 7 F. Fermenting too warm can cause the yeast to produce higher alcohols and excessive fruity flavors. Letting the ambient temperature rise towards the high end of the yeast's range as fermentation slows helps to ensure a clean well attenuated beer, but for most strains is unnecessary. If you are unable to control the fermentation temperature, then choose a yeast strain that fits the conditions.

9. Racking to secondary. I know the instructions included in most kits call for transferring the beer from the primary fermentor to a secondary before bottling, but all this step accomplishes is introducing more risk of oxidation and wild yeast contamination. There is no risk of off flavors from autolysis (yeast death) at the homebrew scale in less than a month. At a commercial level the pressure and heat exerted on the yeast can cause problems quickly, but those conditions do not exist in a carboy or bucket.

10. Relying on bubbles in the airlock to judge when fermentation is complete. Wait until fermentation has appeared finished for a couple of days before pulling a sample of wort to test the final gravity. There is no rush to bottle, and doing so before the final gravity is reached results in extra carbonation. Once fermentation is complete and the beer tastes good, you can move the fermentor somewhere cool to encourage the yeast to settle out for clearer beer in the bottle.

11. Adding the entire five ounce package of priming sugar. In almost all cases this amount of sugar will over-carbonate the beer. Even for five gallons of beer this will produce too much carbonation for most styles and most brewers will end up with less than five gallons in the bottling bucket. Instead use a priming sugar calculator to tailor the weight of sugar you add to the actual volume of beer, the style of beer you are brewing, and the fermentation temperature.

Hopefully this list is able to help a few new homebrewers avoid some of the biggest pitfalls on their first batch. If any of the more experienced brewers out there has any lessons learned that are not included on the list please post a comment. You should also pick up a good basic homebrewing book, like John Palmer’s How to Brew or Randy Mosher's Mastering Homebrew, especially if you want to learn more of the “why” behind some of my suggestions.

There are many other things I would suggest as best practices, but they tend to be more style specific and are not worth worrying about on your first batch. I also think fresh high quality ingredients are a big key to making good beer, but most people brewing their first batch are buying and using fresh malt, yeast, and hops.


When should the airlock start bubbling?

After you have made the switch from blow off tube to airlock, you should see bubbles start to work their way through your airlock soon after.

Remember that as fermentation continues, it’s not uncommon for less and less carbon dioxide to be produced as the yeast starts dropping out of suspension and becoming less active. So, if you notice that your airlock remains inactive after a healthy blow off tube phase, be sure to take an accurate specific gravity reading.

If the gravity of your beer doesn’t change and remains above the target gravity you were expecting, you may have an issue with your fermentation. I have written a detailed article about why this happens and how to fix it, so check that out if this situation refers to you.


Looking for Hop Water Recipes / Information / Experience

My wife can't drink alcohol for a few more months, but loves the smell/taste of hops, so I was excited to read about Lagunitas's Hop Water announcement and discover that there are also other similar products available commercially.

However, these products have generally limited distribution and aren't cheap. I have hops, water, and CO2, but what I don't have is a tried-and-true recipe or experience with a product to know what it should taste like. I was hoping someone here could help me.

A read on some homebrew forums suggests that if I enter this naively and just steep hops in water or make hop tea, it will likely come out unappealingly bitter, and many recipes incorporate sugar/yeast and produce something alcoholic. I am envisioning something zero-alcohol, zero-calorie, zero-caffeine, and perhaps (via non-sugar sweeteners) a little sweet.

So I was hoping for some help:

Does anyone brew Hop Water? If so, do you have a recipe that you can share? How did it taste?

Has anyone tried these products? Are they actually good? I was hoping for an IPA or NEIPA flavor/aroma.


That’s not your keg: Some thoughts on deposits, boycotts, and everything in between.

A fraction of the hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of kegs owned by Freetail Brewing Co.
So here I am again, about to embark on a long-winded blog post about a topic that may in fact be bad for my own well-being in the long-run. It won’t be the first time, hopefully it won’t be the last.

If you haven’t heard by now, a handful of Houston-area bars have agreed to boycott beer from Silver Eagle Distributors over a recent increase in keg deposit fees. Some of the breweries that Silver Eagle distributes: Saint Arnold, Karbach, Firestone Walker, Sierra Nevada, 8th Wonder, Rahr, Six Point, Anheuser-Busch, Modelo, and… you guessed it, San Antonio’s own Freetail Brewing Co.

I’ll start this out by saying that I’m well aware the opinion that follows may result in my beer never again being sold at any of these bars engaged in the boycott, and I’m willing to accept that. I’m willing to accept that perhaps my opinion even means that I can’t sustain distribution in Houston at all. I accept that too, because this is a sword I’m willing to fall on for the industry I love. I’ve always prided Freetail in our transparency and honesty to our suppliers, business customers, peers, and fellow beer drinkers. That’s disclaimer #1.

Disclaimer #2. I understand and I can sympathize with the perspective all parties involved. I’ve paid deposits for other breweries’ beer, and I’ve collected deposits from wholesalers, retailers and consumers alike. I’ve been a part of each side of the transaction. Ek verstaan.

I first heard of this story as it was relayed to me by our salesman on the ground hearing a rumor that I confirmed directly with one of the retailers, confirmed with Silver Eagle, and confirmed with a fellow brewer in the Silver Eagle portfolio. My initial reaction was to be concerned from a business perspective. Our new production brewery, and especially our Houston distribution, is so young that hiccups like these have major impacts on our financial well-being and viability. Putting those concerns aside, I thought to myself: “I get it… and I don’t think anyone is really wrong here.”

But I’ve come to change my opinion, and while I have a lot of respect for folks like Ben Fullelove (Petrol Station) and Kevin Floyd (Hay Merchant) and what they’ve done for craft beer in Houston, I respectfully disagree with them on this issue.

Disclaimer #3: if this dispute were just about advance notice of deposit increases, I would concede that point and agree with those with the complaint. But that isn’t the crux of the debate, the debate is over the fact that keg deposit fees are increasing, and may increase in the future. Bars don’t like it because it’s an additional upfront cash outlay, and that cash is best suited elsewhere. I can understand this perspective, but it doesn’t make it the only viewpoint and it doesn’t make it the correct one.

Disclaimer #4: this dispute actually has nothing to do with me other than the fact that my beer isn’t purchased anymore. I didn’t raise my deposit amount that I charge to my wholesalers, so I’m not the reason the deposits went up. However, I’m one of the brewers most impacted by this because as one of Silver Eagle Houston’s smallest supplier’s, most of my volume is at the same craft-centric accounts involved in this boycott. Maybe that’s why I don’t have an issue falling on this sword: I’m already shut out of all these places for a reason that has nothing to do with me anyway, so what’s to lose?

A keg deposit, is just that: a deposit. Just like any other deposit, when you return the item in the condition it was received (or, in the case of kegs, covered in beer and other miscellaneous things), you get your deposit back. The reason we have keg deposits is because kegs are extremely expensive, and keg loss is a major issue in the beer industry that costs small, independent craft brewers MILLIONS OF DOLLARS every year. (The Brewers Association, which full disclosure, I am a current Board Member of, has estimated that lost and stolen kegs cost craft brewers between $5.3 and $15.8 million annually.) The truth of the matter is that in almost all cases, the cost of a keg deposit is significantly less than the replacement value of the keg. The last order of kegs I made, the total cost of which was as much as a brand new Mercedes-Benz (and not an entry level model), came out to $131.62/keg after accounting for production, embossing, screen printing, palletizing and shipping. To really eliminate keg loss/theft, the market really should be charging a deposit fee significantly higher than the replacement cost of the keg to incentivize the retailer/individual to return it. So long as you are only paying a $50 deposit for something worth $131.62, why would you ever return it? (I know the answer to this question: they get returned because most bars are run by trustworthy people who see more value in selling more beer than owning stolen kegs).

But we don’t charge deposits that ensure maximum returns. The market charges a rate that is less than replacement cost off the contract of trust that has been established between the brewer, the wholesaler, the retailer and consumers in cases where they can buy kegs. The amount of the deposit is set by the brewer at a level that reflects the level of risk the brewer is willing to accept that his kegs might get lost. As losses mount, some brewers may feel compelled to increase that deposit amount to cover those losses. Remember: this costs breweries millions of dollars a year, from the global giants to the smallest breweries.

Some people have asked: why not just punish the bars who are losing the kegs instead of everyone? Well… they are. Only bars that don’t return kegs end up losing their deposit. Bars that return kegs, get their deposit back. If they have another order, that deposit can be applied to the next purchase. I’ve had instances where only paid $5 for a keg of beer because we had four shells to return and we were only buying one keg. In other instances, we were buying more than normal, so we had to put down new deposits. Some people have said “you only get your deposit back when you decide not to sell anymore beer.” But that’s how all deposits work. If you rent an apartment, you only get your deposit back when you move out.

Others have asked, why not only charge the higher deposit amount for the kegs with higher deposits? That would be one way to do things, but in my opinion it creates an accounting quagmire that isn’t worth the trouble. If Scott’s bar is carrying Saint Arnold and wants to buy a keg of Freetail next week, the bar doesn’t have to worry about if there is a difference in the deposit – they get credit for the same deposit amount. This makes things nice and simple for both the wholesaler and the retailer. In my time buying beer from other breweries, the toughest part about managing my outstanding keg deposits was keeping track which ones were are various price levels. Having them all the same price made things a lot easier for me.

Lastly, many have said this is about greed from Silver Eagle. The reality is that Silver Eagle pays keg deposits too. Every week when they come pick beer up from me, I charge them a deposit on kegs and give them credit for returns. If they never return a keg, they lose their deposit. The system of deposits rolling downhill keeps accountability on the person who last “rented” the keg. If Specs, for example, sells a keg to Joe Blow, they are going to collect a deposit. If you don’t return the keg, you don’t get the deposit back. Specs is free to charge whatever price for the deposit they want, since they are responsible for getting that keg back to the wholesaler or they will lose their deposit. If Joe Blow loses it, he is on the hook. If Specs loses it, they are on the hook. If Silver Eagle loses it, they are on the hook to me. When anyone loses it, the brewery is on the hook because the deposit didn’t cover the cost of the keg.

[Note, not discussed here is the topic of bars that hold kegs to age, sometimes for years. This has a real cost to breweries to. We expect a keg to turn over 10-12 times a year, so a keg out of commission for years at a time means it needs to be replaced. I’m not saying this practice needs to stop, but it is something to be aware of]

In the end, this is a nuanced situation that doesn’t have easy answers that boil down to “damn the man!”. In this case, “damn the man” is actually hurting Freetail, Saint Arnold, Karbach, Rahr, 8th Wonder, etc., because we are the ones who rely on these bars to sell our beer and keep us in business.

I won’t be responding to comments to this post because our blog has major spam problems right now and comments get lost. I will, however, respond to any comments posted in the Beer Advocate Southwest Forum in this thread. I’m committed to transparent business practices and am more than happy to engage in a discussion on the topic. I invite any retailers who disagree to engage with me too. Some of you have my cell number, reach out, or let’s talk on the BA forum. There may be something I am missing and my mind is always open to new perspectives.


1Sambayan: A powder keg waiting to blow up

Lt. Gen. Antonio Parlade Jr. calls it a “strange bedfellows” relationship, the 1Sambayan Coalition, reportedly formed to represent the opposition in the 2022 elections. “Strange bedfellows” because those in the relationship are not supposed to share a common bed if you know what I mean. Actually, the phrase is a title of a popular Hollywood movie back in the 1960s about two males in an amorous relationship. At a time when people’s attitude toward LGBTs was not quite as liberal as today, the theme was rather controversial, accounting for the movie’s success at the tills.

Picking up the subject matter, I wrote in this column on March 28, 2021: “While the article clearly delineated what he termed, 'strange bedfellows' relationship among those composing the 1Sambayan coalition, i.e., former senior associate justice Antonio Carpio and former Foreign Affairs secretary Alberto del Rosario, for instance, who are unabashed United States mouthpieces, and former Bayan Muna Rep. Neri Colmenares, for another instance, who is said to be a card-bearing member of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CCP), together with Yellow Senators Kiko Pangilinan and Franklin Drilon with retired Philippine Navy Rear Admiral Rommel Ong to boot, I can’t help the feeling that the exposé actually raised the specter of such awful a phenomenon as a genocide that uniformly attend anti-communist campaigns.”

I had in mind the 1965-1966 genocide of communists in Indonesia that culminated in the military ouster and replacement of President Sukarno by Maj. Gen. Suharto. General Parlade’s assessment on 1Sambayan composition struck me as exposing the breadth and width and height reached by the CPP-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front insurgency to the extent that the Sisonites are already in a modus vivendi with otherwise their class enemies for the purpose of ousting President Duterte. And such an ouster may not even be through the electoral process but through something that has the likes of Suharto’s ousting Sukarno in 1967 — as indicated by General Parlade’s question at the end of his piece to retired Philippine Navy Rear Admiral Rommel Ong: “Why are you there, bok?”

If this perception of mine were to be true, then the formation of 1Sambayan reflects an advancement in the strategy of the United States to get the Philippines embroiled in a war with China in order to reassert its lost status as the world’s leading hegemonist. The transpirations at the US-China Diplomatic Dialogue in Anchorage, Alaska, recently indicated that the US ploy in the Indo Pacific Region is for a continued demonizing of China instead of a peaceful win-win relationship proposed by China for enjoyment of world development equally among countries. The US particularly castigated China for violations of what it calls rules-based international order, which the US and its Western allies promote at the expense of the United Nations rules on international relations, which China upholds in their entirety.

Simply stated, there appears no way China and the United States can agree in the South China Sea (SCS) over which China promotes a Code of Conduct among Asean nations, with no interference from outsiders, while the US and its allies insist on freedom of navigation operations. Germany is the latest reported to have sailed a war vessel in the SCS.

Mark it that the advocacies of the 1Sambayan are in perfect accord with the United States position. To fan Philippine discord with China, the issue of the South China Sea is high on the agenda of the coalition. It sticks to the line that the Philippines has won over China in the 2016 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruling in the country’s dispute with China over certain portions of the region.

Even before that ruling was issued, I already pointed out in 2015 that sovereignty was never at issue in the PCA proceedings, and that at any rate, China had never participated in the arbitration so that the PCA ruling could never be binding on the Chinese. But the way the tandem of Carpio and del Rosario has been raising hoots over the issue, it is as if the PCA did rule that those disputed areas between China and the Philippines are Philippine territories. No such thing. What the PCA ruling says is the Chinese nine-dash line stand is illegal. Just because the Chinese nine-dash line is illegal, does it make the Philippines the owner of those Chinese-claimed features of the South China Sea? It does not follow.

Readers must be enlightened that the entire region of the South China Sea is being

disputed by other Asean nations, including Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam, and non-Asean Taiwan. Carpio, del Rosario et al. in 1Sambayan hoodwink Filipinos with distortions of what the PCA ruling really is in order to make them believe that China is on a rampage against the Philippines in reclaiming shoals and features in the area.

But the friendship struck up between Presidents Duterte and Xi Jinping has been so true and strong over the past four years of the Duterte administration that any strategy to sour it up for purposes of advancing US belligerence against China will fail. It behooves the two leaders, but more so President Xi Jinping, to make a determined counter-propaganda to enlighten Filipinos on the incessant hate campaign against China by US. On this, I stand by my assertions from way back when that China has never been known to exercise aggression upon another nation and particularly in its differences with the Philippines over their South China Sea disputed areas, China will never, I say never, war with the Philippines.

All US machinations to bring this about will fail. Hence 1Sambayan is doomed from its very inception

Its touted Philippine victory over China in the PCA arbitral proceedings, for instance, is deemed by General Parlade (“The Unending story of red-tagging, courtesy of CPP,” The Manila

Times, March 26-27, 2021) as a mere “piece of paper.”

Of late, Western media purveyors of US propaganda CNN and Al Jazeera made big waves of so-called 200 Chinese militia ships having moored at the Philippine-occupied SCS feature Julian Felipe Reef. Al Jazeera even accompanied its report with a huge photograph of a protest action by Filipinos at the Chinese Embassy in Makati.

How true was that report? Were those vessels really carrying Chinese military personnel? An unassuming new tabloid published and edited by this writer, Pwersa, ran this innocent-looking report in its April 1 issue, part of which read:

“AFP (Armed Forces of the Philippines) representatives engaged on March 24, 2021 their Chinese counterpart[s] in a meeting to discuss the situation obtaining in the WPS (West Philippine Sea or South China Sea) as reported. We conveyed the Defense Secretary’s (Delfin Lorenzana) demand for the vessels to leave Julian Felipe Reef where 183 vessels were sighted per AFP’s recent aerial patrol,” Marine Maj. Gen. Edgard Arevalo, AFP spokesman, said.

According to Arevalo, in a meeting of the Philippines with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China, the latter’s representatives assured that the boats spotted on Julian Felipe Reef were not militia vessels but were there to take shelter from bad weather.

But true to form, the US seized the propaganda value of the incident, distorted it to suit its objectives and caused it to be ventilated worldwide, with its traditional rah-rah boys in the Philippines led by the Carpio-del Rosario duo picking it up voraciously.

1Sambayan, by its very name, seeks to highlight patriotism as its prime bonding thread. But its falsehoods and prevarications on truly significant Philippine national issues make it dangerously unfit to accomplish such noble an ideal. On the contrary, the opposite is true.

Again, take it from General Parlade, “Talk about patriotism and bring on board the Aquinos, and that’s a perfect recipe for people now to be outraged. It’s a powder keg waiting to blow up.”



Kommentaar:

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