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Die Spaanse burgemeester beroof supermarkte om die armes te voed

Die Spaanse burgemeester beroof supermarkte om die armes te voed


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'N Burgemeester van 'n klein dorpie in Spanje word 'n plaaslike held deur rooftogte in die supermark op te voer en die kos aan die armes te gee

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Nie die burgemeester nie, maar ons dink graag so

Plaaslike held of ontluikende misdadiger? 'N Burgemeester van die klein dorpie Marinaleda in Spanje (bevolking: 2 645) haal opslae vir die plaasvind van rooftogte in die supermark en die gesteelde kruideniersware aan die armes gee.

In twee aanvalle het vakbondlede voedsel in supermarkkarre gestapel en sonder betaling betaal, terwyl ondersteuners hulle toegejuig het. Die burgemeester, Juan Manuel Sanchez Gordillo, het van buite bemoediging geskreeu en gesê die gesteelde krammetjies gaan na gesinne wat die ergste geraak word deur die wankelende ekonomie.

Sewe mense (sy helpers, vermoed ons) is gearresteer omdat hulle aan diefstal van kruideniersware deelgeneem het, en terwyl Gordillo politieke immuniteit het, sê hy aan Reuters dat hy dit graag sou prysgee en self in die tronk sou sit.

"Daar is mense wat nie genoeg het om te eet nie. In die 21ste eeu is dit 'n absolute skande," het Gordillo aan Reuters gesê.

Intussen beplan Gordillo 'n optog van drie weke om aandag te vestig op mense wat aan die ekonomiese krisis ly. Hy wil hê dat ander burgemeesters moet optree en skuldbetalings oorskry, ontslag stop en huisuitsettings stop. En die regering het natuurlik niks daarvan nie.

'U kan nie Robin Hood en die balju van Nottingham wees nie,' het 'n woordvoerder van die Volksparty (deur die parlement) beslis. 'Hierdie man soek net publisiteit ten koste van almal.'


Madrid se honger jare

/> Kos word gedeel by Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

Die blywende herinnering aan enigiemand wat tydens die beleg van Madrid van twee en 'n half jaar geleef het tydens die Spaanse Burgeroorlog, is honger.

Namate die magte van generaal Francisco Franco geleidelik beheer oor die res van die land verkry het tussen Julie 1936 en April 1939, toe die konflik geëindig het, het voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad afgeneem. Om in die ry te staan, was 'n konstante kenmerk van die daaglikse lewe, met die meer stoïstiese dames wat geweier het om hul plek te laat vaar, selfs terwyl die bomme om hulle val, in die hoop om 'n been vir bredie of 'n patat huis toe te neem.

Lensies, genaamd "weerstandspille", was die stapelvoedsel waarmee talle gesinne kon oorleef. Huisvroue het oplossings gekry wat insluit die maak van omelette met lemoenskil of wors uit broodkrummels, terwyl gebraaide uieringe vir vis moet klaarkom. Sommige kinders het eers 'n piesang of sjokolade gesien nadat die oorlog geëindig het, terwyl die belangrikste gespreksonderwerp in baie huishoudings was: 'Wat sou u nou eet as u iets kan hê wat u wil hê?'

'N Boek wat oorspronklik in 2003 gepubliseer is en getiteld is El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (of Honger in Madrid tydens die burgeroorlog) bied waardevolle insig in die oplossings wat vroue gevind het in die voedseltekort.

Laura en Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, nou in die sewentig, het resepte versamel van ongeveer 75 van hul tydgenote wat deur die beleg in die Spaanse hoofstad geleef het. Die twee susters, onderskeidelik 'n historikus en 'n apteker, sê in hul inleiding dat die gewig van hul ma tussen 1936 en 1939 van 70 tot 35 kilo gedaal het.

"Ons het baie praatjies gehoor oor die hongerjare tydens die burgeroorlog, en ons wou die verhale versamel voordat dit vir ewig verlore gaan," sê Laura. Die paartjie het met vriende en familie begin praat en besoek die ouetehuise besoek.

Meer inligting

"Baie mense wou nie oor die oorlog praat nie omdat hulle geliefdes verloor het, of omdat hulle kontak gehad het met die regering of die vakbonde en toegang tot kos gehad het," sê Laura en voeg by: "Ander van verskillende kante in die oorlog het nog steeds met mekaar gestry. ”

Na 'n weerligveldtog gedurende die somer van 1936, word die magte van Franco buite die noordwestelike rand van die stad tot stilstand gebring en die sirkel geleidelik tot Maart 1939 gesluit, toe die hoofstad oorgegee het. Madrid, wat reeds 'n bevolking van ongeveer 'n miljoen mense gehad het, was ook gevul met vlugtelinge uit ander oorlogsgebiede.

Die stad is beskerm deur loopgrawe wat deur Republikeinse magte en vrywillige milisies beman is. Maar om voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad te kry, word al hoe moeiliker. 'N Swart mark het gou begin floreer, en tekorte is vererger deur wedywerings tussen verskillende faksies binne die Republikeinse administrasie, wat verplig was om rantsoenkaartjies uit te reik.

/> Die sakke met broodbroodjies wat deur Franco se vliegtuie oor Madrid neergesit is.

Namate geld begin opraak, was baie gesinne verplig om besittings te ruil, sê die susters. 'Mense gaan na die Torrijos -mark en ruil voorwerpe in vir kos, waarvan die vakbonde geneig was om te beheer: 'n trui vir 'n sny brood. Een van ons tantes het by 'n Switserse versekeringsmaatskappy gewerk en is met sigarette betaal, wat sy vir kos sou verruil, 'sê Laura en voeg by dat die stad ondanks die ontberings 'n skyn van normaliteit probeer behou het:' Mense het gaan werk, en ondanks die honger en die vrees, die bioskope was oop, wat ek moet sê nog steeds verbaas. ”

Wat het mense geëet tydens die beleg van Madrid? Nie veel nie: hoofsaaklik lensies, patats, mossels, af en toe stuk gesoute kabeljou, af en toe 'n eier, maar feitlik geen vleis nie. Rys en vrugte het vroeg in 1937 opgehou kom nadat Franco se magte die roete na Valencia, waarheen die Republikeinse regering gevlug het, afgesny het en die hoofstad onder bevel van 'n verdedigingskomitee onder leiding van generaal José Miaja gelaat het.

'Katte het gou verdwyn omdat hulle dieselfde as konyne proe, en mense het dit net geëet. Naby ons huis sterf 'n donkie wat aan 'n steenkoolafleweringsonderneming behoort, en dit word opgesny en vir vleis verkoop. Honde is ook as lam oorgedra, ”sê Carmen.

En namate die beleg aangestap het, begin die impak van hierdie swak dieet sigbaar word deur siektes en siektes soos avitaminose, pellagra, hongeroedeem en selfs breinskade, veral in die geval van kinders. "Tuberkulose het tot in die veertigerjare baie sterftes veroorsaak," sê Carmen. "En as gevolg van die verskillende siektes en probleme wat honger veroorsaak het, is daar geen syfers oor hoeveel mense werklik aan 'n swak dieet gesterf het nie."

Nie eers die dood was 'n ontvlugting uit die tekorte nie: 'Daar was geen hout om kiste vir die dooies te maak nie, want dit was alles vir brandstof gebruik. Baie van die oorledenes is eenvoudig in sakke begrawe. Mense wou die bome in die Retiro -park afkap, maar die stadsaal het dit verbied, ”sê Laura. In plaas daarvan sou kinders oor die ruïnes van geboue wat pas gebombardeer is, wemel op soek na balke en ander hout wat hulle kon vind.

/> Mense wat boomversierings versamel om in hul kookkuns te gebruik.

In die laaste stadium van die beleg het Franco se magte klein brode op die stad begin gooi. Hulle was toegedraai in 'n Spaanse vlag met die legende: "In die nasionale Spanje, verenig, groot en vry, is daar geen huis sonder 'n haard of 'n gesin sonder brood nie." Die verdedigingskomitee het inwoners gewaarsku om dit nie te eet nie, want die brood kon vergiftig gewees het, maar die meeste mense het geen kennis geneem nie. 'Daar was selfs bootlickers wat dit by die owerhede ingehandig het: ek het gesien hoe milisie -lede hulle in die dreine gooi.'

Gloria Fuertes, 'n romanskrywer en digter wat deur die beleg geleef het en in 1998 gesterf het, het oor die lyding as gevolg van gebrek aan voedsel geskryf: 'Honger, honger. Madrid het honger begin ly 'n maand nadat die oorlog begin het. Een keer het ons drie dae op 'n gebakte eier gegaan, dit versprei en weggesteek ... ek was nie bang om te sterf nie, ek het net die vreeslike maagpyn gehad wat honger veroorsaak het. "

Meer as sewe dekades nadat die oorlog geëindig het, sê die Gutiérrez Rueda -susters dat hulle ontsteld is om die honger na die strate van Madrid te sien terugkeer en om liefdadigheidsorganisasies soos Cáritas te hoor waarsku teen 'n toename in kindervoeding. "Die honger is nie dieselfde as in daardie tye nie, en deesdae kan u altyd na 'n voedselbank gaan," sê Laura. 'Maar dit is verskriklik dat mense deur vullisstorters moet soek, of dat die polisie mense wegjaag vir die kos wat supermarkte uitgegooi het.'


Madrid se honger jare

/> Kos word gedeel by Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

Die blywende herinnering aan enigiemand wat tydens die beleg van Madrid van twee en 'n half jaar geleef het tydens die Spaanse Burgeroorlog, is honger.

Namate die magte van generaal Francisco Franco geleidelik beheer oor die res van die land verkry het tussen Julie 1936 en April 1939, toe die konflik geëindig het, het voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad afgeneem. Om in die ry te staan, was 'n konstante kenmerk van die daaglikse lewe, met die meer stoïstiese dames wat geweier het om hul plek te laat vaar, selfs terwyl die bomme om hulle val, in die hoop om 'n been vir bredie of 'n patat huis toe te neem.

Lensies, genaamd "weerstandspille", was die stapelvoedsel waarmee talle gesinne kon oorleef. Huisvroue het oplossings gekry wat insluit die maak van omelette met lemoenskil of wors uit broodkrummels, terwyl gebraaide uieringe vir vis moet klaarkom. Sommige kinders het eers 'n piesang of sjokolade gesien nadat die oorlog geëindig het, terwyl die hoofonderwerp van gesprek in baie huishoudings was: 'Wat sou u nou eet as u iets kan hê wat u wil hê?'

'N Boek wat oorspronklik in 2003 gepubliseer is en getiteld is El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (of Honger in Madrid tydens die burgeroorlog) bied waardevolle insig in die oplossings wat vroue gevind het vir die voedseltekort.

Laura en Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, nou in die sewentig, het resepte versamel van ongeveer 75 van hul tydgenote wat deur die beleg in die Spaanse hoofstad geleef het. Die twee susters, onderskeidelik 'n historikus en 'n apteker, sê in hul inleiding dat die gewig van hul ma tussen 1936 en 1939 van 70 tot 35 kilo gedaal het.

"Ons het baie praatjies gehoor oor die hongerjare tydens die burgeroorlog, en ons wou die verhale versamel voordat dit vir ewig verlore gaan," sê Laura. Die paartjie het met vriende en familie begin praat en besoek die ouetehuise.

Meer inligting

"Baie mense wou nie oor die oorlog praat nie omdat hulle geliefdes verloor het, of omdat hulle kontak gehad het met die regering of die vakbonde en toegang tot kos gehad het," sê Laura en voeg by: "Ander van verskillende kante in die oorlog het nog steeds met mekaar gestry. ”

Na 'n weerligveldtog gedurende die somer van 1936, word die magte van Franco buite die noordwestelike rand van die stad tot stilstand gebring en die sirkel geleidelik tot Maart 1939 gesluit, toe die hoofstad oorgegee het. Madrid, wat reeds 'n bevolking van ongeveer 'n miljoen mense gehad het, was ook gevul met vlugtelinge uit ander oorlogsgebiede.

Die stad is beskerm deur loopgrawe wat deur Republikeinse magte en vrywillige milisies beman is. Maar om voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad te kry, word al hoe moeiliker. 'N Swart mark het gou begin floreer, en tekorte is vererger deur wedywerings tussen verskillende faksies binne die Republikeinse administrasie, wat verplig was om rantsoenkaartjies uit te reik.

/> Die sakke met broodbroodjies wat deur Franco se vliegtuie oor Madrid neergesit is.

Toe die geld begin opraak, was baie gesinne verplig om besittings te ruil, sê die susters. 'Mense gaan na die Torrijos -mark en ruil voorwerpe in vir kos, waarvan die vakbonde geneig was om te beheer: 'n trui vir 'n sny brood. Een van ons tantes het by 'n Switserse versekeringsmaatskappy gewerk en is met sigarette betaal, wat sy vir kos sou verruil, 'sê Laura en voeg by dat die stad ondanks die ontberings 'n skyn van normaliteit probeer behou het:' Mense het gaan werk, en ondanks die honger en die vrees, die bioskope was oop, wat ek moet sê nog steeds verbaas. ”

Wat het mense geëet tydens die beleg van Madrid? Nie veel nie: hoofsaaklik lensies, patats, mossels, af en toe stuk gesoute kabeljou, af en toe 'n eier, maar feitlik geen vleis nie. Rys en vrugte het vroeg in 1937 opgehou kom nadat Franco se magte die roete na Valencia, waarheen die Republikeinse regering gevlug het, afgesny het en die hoofstad onder bevel van 'n verdedigingskomitee onder leiding van generaal José Miaja gelaat het.

'Katte het gou verdwyn omdat hulle dieselfde as konyne proe, en mense het dit net geëet. Naby ons huis sterf 'n donkie wat aan 'n steenkoolafleweringsonderneming behoort, en dit word opgesny en vir vleis verkoop. Honde is ook as lam oorgedra, ”sê Carmen.

En namate die beleg aangaan, begin die impak van hierdie swak dieet sigbaar word deur siektes en siektes soos avitaminose, pellagra, hongeroedeem en selfs breinskade, veral in die geval van kinders. "Tuberkulose het tot in die veertigerjare baie sterftes veroorsaak," sê Carmen. "En as gevolg van die verskillende siektes en probleme wat honger veroorsaak het, is daar geen syfers oor hoeveel mense werklik aan 'n swak dieet gesterf het nie."

Nie eers die dood was 'n ontvlugting uit die tekorte nie: 'Daar was geen hout om kiste vir die dooies te maak nie, want dit was alles vir brandstof gebruik. Baie van die oorledenes is eenvoudig in sakke begrawe. Mense wou die bome in die Retiro -park afkap, maar die stadsaal het dit verbied, ”sê Laura. In plaas daarvan sou kinders oor die ruïnes van geboue wat pas gebombardeer is, wemel op soek na balke en ander hout wat hulle kon vind.

/> Mense wat boomversierings versamel om in hul kookkuns te gebruik.

In die laaste stadium van die beleg het Franco se magte klein brode op die stad begin gooi. Hulle was toegedraai in 'n Spaanse vlag met die legende: "In die nasionale Spanje, verenig, groot en vry, is daar geen huis sonder 'n haard of 'n gesin sonder brood nie." Die verdedigingskomitee het inwoners gewaarsku om dit nie te eet nie, want die brood kon vergiftig gewees het, maar die meeste mense het geen kennis geneem nie. 'Daar was selfs bootlickers wat dit by die owerhede ingehandig het: ek het gesien hoe milisie -lede hulle in die dreine gooi.'

Gloria Fuertes, 'n romanskrywer en digter wat deur die beleg geleef het en in 1998 gesterf het, het oor die lyding as gevolg van gebrek aan voedsel geskryf: 'Honger, honger. Madrid het honger begin ly 'n maand nadat die oorlog begin het. Een keer het ons drie dae op 'n gebakte eier gegaan, dit versprei en weggesteek ... ek was nie bang om te sterf nie, ek het net die vreeslike maagpyn gehad wat honger veroorsaak het. "

Meer as sewe dekades nadat die oorlog geëindig het, sê die Gutiérrez Rueda -susters dat hulle ontsteld is om die honger na die strate van Madrid te sien terugkeer en om liefdadigheidsorganisasies soos Cáritas te hoor waarsku teen 'n toename in kindervoeding. "Die honger is nie dieselfde as in daardie tye nie, en deesdae kan u altyd na 'n voedselbank gaan," sê Laura. 'Maar dit is verskriklik dat mense deur vullisstorters moet soek, of dat die polisie mense wegjaag vir die kos wat supermarkte uitgegooi het.'


Madrid se honger jare

/> Kos word gedeel by Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

Die blywende herinnering aan enigiemand wat tydens die beleg van Madrid van twee en 'n half jaar geleef het tydens die Spaanse Burgeroorlog, is 'n hongersnood.

Namate die magte van generaal Francisco Franco geleidelik beheer oor die res van die land verkry het tussen Julie 1936 en April 1939, toe die konflik geëindig het, het voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad afgeneem. Om in die ry te staan, was 'n konstante kenmerk van die daaglikse lewe, met die meer stoïstiese dames wat geweier het om hul plek te laat vaar, selfs terwyl die bomme om hulle val, in die hoop om 'n been vir bredie of 'n patat huis toe te neem.

Lensies, genaamd "weerstandspille", was die stapelvoedsel waarmee talle gesinne kon oorleef. Huisvroue het oplossings gekry wat insluit die maak van omelette met lemoenskil of wors uit broodkrummels, terwyl gebraaide uieringe vir vis moet klaarkom. Sommige kinders het eers 'n piesang of sjokolade gesien nadat die oorlog geëindig het, terwyl die belangrikste gespreksonderwerp in baie huishoudings was: 'Wat sou u nou eet as u iets kan hê wat u wil hê?'

'N Boek wat oorspronklik in 2003 gepubliseer is en getiteld is El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (of Honger in Madrid tydens die burgeroorlog) bied waardevolle insig in die oplossings wat vroue gevind het in die voedseltekort.

Laura en Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, nou in die sewentig, het resepte versamel van ongeveer 75 van hul tydgenote wat deur die beleg in die Spaanse hoofstad geleef het. Die twee susters, onderskeidelik 'n historikus en 'n apteker, sê in hul inleiding dat die gewig van hul ma tussen 1936 en 1939 van 70 tot 35 kilo gedaal het.

"Ons het baie praatjies gehoor oor die hongerjare tydens die burgeroorlog, en ons wou die verhale versamel voordat dit vir ewig verlore gaan," sê Laura. Die paartjie het met vriende en familie begin praat en besoek die ouetehuise besoek.

Meer inligting

"Baie mense wou nie oor die oorlog praat nie omdat hulle geliefdes verloor het, of omdat hulle kontak gehad het met die regering of die vakbonde en toegang tot kos gehad het," sê Laura en voeg by: "Ander van verskillende kante in die oorlog het nog steeds met mekaar gestry. ”

Na 'n weerligveldtog gedurende die somer van 1936, word die magte van Franco buite die noordwestelike rand van die stad tot stilstand gebring en die sirkel geleidelik tot Maart 1939 gesluit, toe die hoofstad oorgegee het. Madrid, wat reeds 'n bevolking van ongeveer 'n miljoen mense gehad het, was ook gevul met vlugtelinge uit ander oorlogsgebiede.

Die stad is beskerm deur loopgrawe wat deur Republikeinse magte en vrywillige milisies beman is. Maar om voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad te kry, word al hoe moeiliker. 'N Swart mark het gou begin floreer, en die tekorte is vererger deur wedywerings tussen verskillende faksies binne die Republikeinse administrasie, wat verplig was om rantsoenkaartjies uit te reik.

/> Die sakke met broodbroodjies wat deur Franco se vliegtuie oor Madrid neergesit is.

Toe die geld begin opraak, was baie gesinne verplig om besittings te ruil, sê die susters. 'Mense gaan na die Torrijos -mark en ruil voorwerpe in vir kos, waarvan die vakbonde geneig was om te beheer: 'n trui vir 'n sny brood. Een van ons tantes het by 'n Switserse versekeringsmaatskappy gewerk en is met sigarette betaal, wat sy vir kos sou verruil, 'sê Laura en voeg by dat die stad ondanks die ontberings 'n skyn van normaliteit probeer behou het:' Mense het gaan werk, en ten spyte daarvan die honger en die vrees, die bioskope was oop, wat ek moet sê nog steeds verbaas. ”

Wat het mense geëet tydens die beleg van Madrid? Nie veel nie: hoofsaaklik lensies, patats, mossels, af en toe stuk gesoute kabeljou, af en toe 'n eier, maar feitlik geen vleis nie. Rys en vrugte het vroeg in 1937 opgehou kom nadat Franco se magte die roete na Valencia, waarheen die Republikeinse regering gevlug het, afgesny het en die hoofstad onder bevel van 'n verdedigingskomitee onder leiding van generaal José Miaja gelaat het.

'Katte het gou verdwyn omdat hulle dieselfde as konyne proe, en mense het dit net geëet. Naby ons huis sterf 'n donkie wat aan 'n steenkoolafleweringsonderneming behoort, en dit word opgesny en vir vleis verkoop. Honde is ook as lam oorgedra, ”sê Carmen.

En namate die beleg aangestap het, begin die impak van hierdie swak dieet sigbaar word deur siektes en siektes soos avitaminose, pellagra, hongeroedeem en selfs breinskade, veral in die geval van kinders. "Tuberkulose het tot in die veertigerjare baie sterftes veroorsaak," sê Carmen. "En as gevolg van die verskillende siektes en probleme wat honger veroorsaak het, is daar geen syfers oor hoeveel mense werklik aan 'n swak dieet gesterf het nie."

Nie eers die dood was 'n ontvlugting uit die tekorte nie: 'Daar was geen hout om kiste vir die dooies te maak nie, want dit was alles vir brandstof gebruik. Baie van die oorledenes is eenvoudig in sakke begrawe. Mense wou die bome in die Retiro -park afkap, maar die stadsaal het dit verbied, ”sê Laura. In plaas daarvan sou kinders oor die ruïnes van geboue wat pas gebombardeer is, wemel op soek na balke en ander hout wat hulle kon vind.

/> Mense wat boomversierings versamel om in hul kookkuns te gebruik.

In die laaste stadium van die beleg het Franco se magte klein brode op die stad begin gooi. Hulle was toegedraai in 'n Spaanse vlag met die legende: "In die nasionale Spanje, verenig, groot en vry, is daar geen huis sonder 'n haard of 'n gesin sonder brood nie." Die verdedigingskomitee het inwoners gewaarsku om dit nie te eet nie, want die brood kon vergiftig gewees het, maar die meeste mense het geen kennis geneem nie. 'Daar was selfs bootlickers wat dit by die owerhede ingehandig het: ek het gesien hoe milisie -lede hulle in die dreine gooi.'

Gloria Fuertes, 'n romanskrywer en digter wat deur die beleg geleef het en in 1998 gesterf het, het oor die lyding as gevolg van gebrek aan voedsel geskryf: 'Honger, honger. Madrid het honger begin ly 'n maand nadat die oorlog begin het. Een keer het ons drie dae op 'n gebakte eier gegaan, dit versprei en weggesteek ... ek was nie bang om te sterf nie, ek het net die vreeslike maagpyn gehad wat honger veroorsaak het. "

Meer as sewe dekades nadat die oorlog geëindig het, sê die Gutiérrez Rueda -susters dat hulle ontsteld is om die honger na die strate van Madrid te sien terugkeer en om liefdadigheidsorganisasies soos Cáritas te hoor waarsku teen 'n toename in kindervoeding. "Die honger is nie dieselfde as in daardie tye nie, en deesdae kan u altyd na 'n voedselbank gaan," sê Laura. 'Maar dit is verskriklik dat mense deur vullisstorters moet soek, of dat die polisie mense wegjaag vir die kos wat supermarkte uitgegooi het.'


Madrid se honger jare

/> Kos word gedeel by Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

Die blywende herinnering aan enigiemand wat tydens die beleg van Madrid van twee en 'n half jaar geleef het tydens die Spaanse Burgeroorlog, is honger.

Namate die magte van generaal Francisco Franco geleidelik beheer oor die res van die land verkry het tussen Julie 1936 en April 1939, toe die konflik geëindig het, het voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad afgeneem. Om in die ry te staan, was 'n konstante kenmerk van die daaglikse lewe, met die meer stoïstiese dames wat geweier het om hul plek te laat vaar, selfs terwyl die bomme om hulle val, in die hoop om 'n been vir bredie of 'n patat huis toe te neem.

Lensies, genaamd "weerstandspille", was die stapelvoedsel waarmee talle gesinne kon oorleef. Huisvroue het oplossings gekry wat insluit die maak van omelette met lemoenskil of wors uit broodkrummels, terwyl gebraaide uieringe vir vis moet klaarkom. Sommige kinders het eers 'n piesang of sjokolade gesien nadat die oorlog geëindig het, terwyl die hoofonderwerp van gesprek in baie huishoudings was: 'Wat sou u nou eet as u iets kan hê wat u wil hê?'

'N Boek wat oorspronklik in 2003 gepubliseer is en getiteld is El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (of Honger in Madrid tydens die burgeroorlog) bied waardevolle insig in die oplossings wat vroue gevind het vir die voedseltekort.

Laura en Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, nou in die sewentig, het resepte versamel van ongeveer 75 van hul tydgenote wat deur die beleg in die Spaanse hoofstad geleef het. Die twee susters, onderskeidelik 'n historikus en 'n apteker, sê in hul inleiding dat die gewig van hul ma tussen 1936 en 1939 van 70 tot 35 kilo gedaal het.

"Ons het baie praatjies gehoor oor die hongerjare tydens die burgeroorlog, en ons wou die verhale versamel voordat dit vir ewig verlore gaan," sê Laura. Die paartjie het met vriende en familie begin praat en besoek die ouetehuise.

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"Baie mense wou nie oor die oorlog praat nie omdat hulle geliefdes verloor het, of omdat hulle kontak gehad het met die regering of die vakbonde en toegang tot kos gehad het," sê Laura en voeg by: "Ander van verskillende kante in die oorlog het nog steeds met mekaar gestry. ”

Na 'n weerligveldtog gedurende die somer van 1936, word die magte van Franco buite die noordwestelike rand van die stad tot stilstand gebring en die sirkel geleidelik tot Maart 1939 gesluit, toe die hoofstad oorgegee het. Madrid, wat reeds 'n bevolking van ongeveer 'n miljoen mense gehad het, was ook gevul met vlugtelinge uit ander oorlogsgebiede.

Die stad is beskerm deur loopgrawe wat deur Republikeinse magte en vrywillige milisies beman is. Maar om voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad te kry, word al hoe moeiliker. 'N Swart mark het gou begin floreer, en die tekorte is vererger deur wedywerings tussen verskillende faksies binne die Republikeinse administrasie, wat verplig was om rantsoenkaartjies uit te reik.

/> Die sakke met broodbroodjies wat deur Franco se vliegtuie oor Madrid neergesit is.

Namate geld begin opraak, was baie gesinne verplig om besittings te ruil, sê die susters. 'Mense gaan na die Torrijos -mark en ruil voorwerpe in vir kos, waarvan die vakbonde geneig was om te beheer: 'n trui vir 'n sny brood. Een van ons tantes het by 'n Switserse versekeringsmaatskappy gewerk en is met sigarette betaal, wat sy vir kos sou verruil, 'sê Laura en voeg by dat die stad ondanks die ontberings 'n skyn van normaliteit probeer behou het:' Mense het gaan werk, en ondanks die honger en die vrees, die bioskope was oop, wat ek moet sê nog steeds verbaas. ”

Wat het mense geëet tydens die beleg van Madrid? Nie veel nie: hoofsaaklik lensies, patats, mossels, af en toe stuk gesoute kabeljou, af en toe 'n eier, maar feitlik geen vleis nie. Rys en vrugte het vroeg in 1937 opgehou kom nadat Franco se magte die roete na Valencia, waarheen die Republikeinse regering gevlug het, afgesny het en die hoofstad onder bevel van 'n verdedigingskomitee onder leiding van generaal José Miaja gelaat het.

'Katte het gou verdwyn omdat hulle dieselfde as konyne proe, en mense het dit net geëet. Naby ons huis sterf 'n donkie wat aan 'n steenkoolafleweringsonderneming behoort, en dit word opgesny en vir vleis verkoop. Honde is ook as lam oorgedra, ”sê Carmen.

En namate die beleg aangestap het, begin die impak van hierdie swak dieet sigbaar word deur siektes en siektes soos avitaminose, pellagra, hongeroedeem en selfs breinskade, veral in die geval van kinders. "Tuberkulose het tot in die veertigerjare baie sterftes veroorsaak," sê Carmen. "En as gevolg van die verskillende siektes en probleme wat honger veroorsaak het, is daar geen syfers oor hoeveel mense werklik aan 'n swak dieet gesterf het nie."

Nie eers die dood was 'n ontvlugting uit die tekorte nie: 'Daar was geen hout om kiste vir die dooies te maak nie, want dit was alles vir brandstof gebruik. Baie van die oorledenes is eenvoudig in sakke begrawe. Mense wou die bome in die Retiro -park afkap, maar die stadsaal het dit verbied, ”sê Laura. In plaas daarvan sou kinders oor die ruïnes van geboue wat pas gebombardeer is, wemel op soek na balke en ander hout wat hulle kon vind.

/> Mense wat boomversierings versamel om in hul kookkuns te gebruik.

In die laaste stadium van die beleg het Franco se magte klein brode op die stad begin gooi. Hulle was toegedraai in 'n Spaanse vlag met die legende: "In die nasionale Spanje, verenig, groot en vry, is daar geen huis sonder 'n haard of 'n gesin sonder brood nie." Die verdedigingskomitee het inwoners gewaarsku om dit nie te eet nie, want die brood kon vergiftig gewees het, maar die meeste mense het geen kennis geneem nie. 'Daar was selfs bootlickers wat dit by die owerhede ingehandig het: ek het gesien hoe milisie -lede hulle in die dreine gooi.'

Gloria Fuertes, 'n romanskrywer en digter wat deur die beleg geleef het en in 1998 gesterf het, het oor die lyding as gevolg van gebrek aan voedsel geskryf: 'Honger, honger. Madrid het honger begin ly 'n maand nadat die oorlog begin het. Een keer het ons drie dae op 'n gebakte eier gegaan, dit versprei en weggesteek ... ek was nie bang om te sterf nie, ek het net die vreeslike maagpyn gehad wat honger veroorsaak het. "

Meer as sewe dekades nadat die oorlog geëindig het, sê die Gutiérrez Rueda -susters dat hulle ontsteld is om die honger na die strate van Madrid te sien terugkeer en om liefdadigheidsorganisasies soos Cáritas te hoor waarsku teen 'n toename in kindervoeding. "Die honger is nie dieselfde as in daardie tye nie, en deesdae kan u altyd na 'n voedselbank gaan," sê Laura. 'Maar dit is verskriklik dat mense deur vullisstorters moet soek, of dat die polisie mense wegjaag vir die kos wat supermarkte uitgegooi het.'


Madrid se honger jare

/> Kos word gedeel by Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

Die blywende herinnering aan enigiemand wat tydens die beleg van Madrid van twee en 'n half jaar geleef het tydens die Spaanse Burgeroorlog, is 'n hongersnood.

Namate die magte van generaal Francisco Franco geleidelik beheer oor die res van die land verkry het tussen Julie 1936 en April 1939, toe die konflik geëindig het, het voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad afgeneem. Om in die ry te staan, was 'n konstante kenmerk van die daaglikse lewe, met die meer stoïstiese dames wat geweier het om hul plek te laat vaar, selfs terwyl die bomme om hulle val, in die hoop om 'n been vir bredie of 'n patat huis toe te neem.

Lensies, genaamd "weerstandspille", was die stapelvoedsel waarmee talle gesinne kon oorleef. Huisvroue het oplossings gekry wat insluit die maak van omelette met lemoenskil of wors uit broodkrummels, terwyl gebraaide uieringe vir vis moet klaarkom. Sommige kinders het eers 'n piesang of sjokolade gesien nadat die oorlog geëindig het, terwyl die hoofonderwerp van gesprek in baie huishoudings was: 'Wat sou u nou eet as u iets kan hê wat u wil hê?'

'N Boek wat oorspronklik in 2003 gepubliseer is en getiteld is El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (of Honger in Madrid tydens die burgeroorlog) bied waardevolle insig in die oplossings wat vroue gevind het in die voedseltekort.

Laura en Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, nou in die sewentig, het resepte versamel van ongeveer 75 van hul tydgenote wat deur die beleg in die Spaanse hoofstad geleef het. Die twee susters, onderskeidelik 'n historikus en 'n apteker, sê in hul inleiding dat die gewig van hul ma tussen 1936 en 1939 van 70 tot 35 kilo gedaal het.

"Ons het baie praatjies gehoor oor die hongerjare tydens die burgeroorlog, en ons wou die verhale versamel voordat dit vir ewig verlore gaan," sê Laura. Die paartjie het met vriende en familie begin praat en besoek die ouetehuise besoek.

Meer inligting

"Baie mense wou nie oor die oorlog praat nie omdat hulle geliefdes verloor het, of omdat hulle kontak gehad het met die regering of die vakbonde en toegang tot kos gehad het," sê Laura en voeg by: "Ander van verskillende kante in die oorlog het nog steeds met mekaar gestry. ”

Na 'n weerligveldtog gedurende die somer van 1936, word die magte van Franco buite die noordwestelike rand van die stad tot stilstand gebring en die sirkel geleidelik tot Maart 1939 gesluit, toe die hoofstad oorgegee het. Madrid, wat reeds 'n bevolking van ongeveer 'n miljoen mense gehad het, was ook gevul met vlugtelinge uit ander oorlogsgebiede.

Die stad is beskerm deur loopgrawe wat deur Republikeinse magte en vrywillige milisies beman is. Maar om voedselvoorraad in die hoofstad te kry, word al hoe moeiliker. 'N Swart mark het gou begin floreer, en tekorte is vererger deur wedywerings tussen verskillende faksies binne die Republikeinse administrasie, wat verplig was om rantsoenkaartjies uit te reik.

/> Die sakke met broodbroodjies wat deur Franco se vliegtuie oor Madrid neergesit is.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Madrid’s hungry years

/>Food gets shared out at Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

The abiding memory of anybody who lived through the two-and-a-half-year siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War is one of hunger.

As the forces of General Francisco Franco gradually won control over the rest of the country between July 1936 and April 1939, when the conflict ended, food supplies in the capital dwindled. Standing in line was a constant feature of daily life, with the more stoical ladies refusing to abandon their spot even as the bombs fell around them, in the hope of taking home a bone for stew or a sweet potato.

Lentils, dubbed “resistance pills,” were the staple that allowed countless families to survive. Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. Some children never saw a banana or chocolate until after the war ended, while the main topic of conversation in many households was: “What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted?”

A book originally published in 2003 and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War) provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.

Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, now in their seventies, have collected recipes from around 75 of their contemporaries who lived through the siege in the Spanish capital. The two sisters, a historian and a pharmacist respectively, say in their introduction that their mother’s weight fell from 70 to 35 kilos between 1936 and 1939.

“We heard a lot of talk growing up about the hunger years during the Civil War, and we wanted to collect those stories before they were lost for ever,” says Laura. So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes.

More information

“A lot of people didn’t want to talk about the war because they had lost loved ones, or because they'd had a contact in the government or the unions and were able to access food,” says Laura, adding: “Others from different sides in the war were still arguing with one another.”

After a lightning campaign throughout the summer of 1936, Franco’s forces were brought to a halt outside the northwestern edge of the city, gradually closing the circle until March 1939, when the capital surrendered. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones.

The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.

/>The bags that contained bread buns dropped by Franco's planes over Madrid.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Madrid’s hungry years

/>Food gets shared out at Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

The abiding memory of anybody who lived through the two-and-a-half-year siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War is one of hunger.

As the forces of General Francisco Franco gradually won control over the rest of the country between July 1936 and April 1939, when the conflict ended, food supplies in the capital dwindled. Standing in line was a constant feature of daily life, with the more stoical ladies refusing to abandon their spot even as the bombs fell around them, in the hope of taking home a bone for stew or a sweet potato.

Lentils, dubbed “resistance pills,” were the staple that allowed countless families to survive. Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. Some children never saw a banana or chocolate until after the war ended, while the main topic of conversation in many households was: “What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted?”

A book originally published in 2003 and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War) provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.

Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, now in their seventies, have collected recipes from around 75 of their contemporaries who lived through the siege in the Spanish capital. The two sisters, a historian and a pharmacist respectively, say in their introduction that their mother’s weight fell from 70 to 35 kilos between 1936 and 1939.

“We heard a lot of talk growing up about the hunger years during the Civil War, and we wanted to collect those stories before they were lost for ever,” says Laura. So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes.

More information

“A lot of people didn’t want to talk about the war because they had lost loved ones, or because they'd had a contact in the government or the unions and were able to access food,” says Laura, adding: “Others from different sides in the war were still arguing with one another.”

After a lightning campaign throughout the summer of 1936, Franco’s forces were brought to a halt outside the northwestern edge of the city, gradually closing the circle until March 1939, when the capital surrendered. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones.

The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.

/>The bags that contained bread buns dropped by Franco's planes over Madrid.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Madrid’s hungry years

/>Food gets shared out at Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

The abiding memory of anybody who lived through the two-and-a-half-year siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War is one of hunger.

As the forces of General Francisco Franco gradually won control over the rest of the country between July 1936 and April 1939, when the conflict ended, food supplies in the capital dwindled. Standing in line was a constant feature of daily life, with the more stoical ladies refusing to abandon their spot even as the bombs fell around them, in the hope of taking home a bone for stew or a sweet potato.

Lentils, dubbed “resistance pills,” were the staple that allowed countless families to survive. Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. Some children never saw a banana or chocolate until after the war ended, while the main topic of conversation in many households was: “What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted?”

A book originally published in 2003 and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War) provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.

Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, now in their seventies, have collected recipes from around 75 of their contemporaries who lived through the siege in the Spanish capital. The two sisters, a historian and a pharmacist respectively, say in their introduction that their mother’s weight fell from 70 to 35 kilos between 1936 and 1939.

“We heard a lot of talk growing up about the hunger years during the Civil War, and we wanted to collect those stories before they were lost for ever,” says Laura. So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes.

More information

“A lot of people didn’t want to talk about the war because they had lost loved ones, or because they'd had a contact in the government or the unions and were able to access food,” says Laura, adding: “Others from different sides in the war were still arguing with one another.”

After a lightning campaign throughout the summer of 1936, Franco’s forces were brought to a halt outside the northwestern edge of the city, gradually closing the circle until March 1939, when the capital surrendered. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones.

The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.

/>The bags that contained bread buns dropped by Franco's planes over Madrid.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Madrid’s hungry years

/>Food gets shared out at Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

The abiding memory of anybody who lived through the two-and-a-half-year siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War is one of hunger.

As the forces of General Francisco Franco gradually won control over the rest of the country between July 1936 and April 1939, when the conflict ended, food supplies in the capital dwindled. Standing in line was a constant feature of daily life, with the more stoical ladies refusing to abandon their spot even as the bombs fell around them, in the hope of taking home a bone for stew or a sweet potato.

Lentils, dubbed “resistance pills,” were the staple that allowed countless families to survive. Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. Some children never saw a banana or chocolate until after the war ended, while the main topic of conversation in many households was: “What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted?”

A book originally published in 2003 and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War) provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.

Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, now in their seventies, have collected recipes from around 75 of their contemporaries who lived through the siege in the Spanish capital. The two sisters, a historian and a pharmacist respectively, say in their introduction that their mother’s weight fell from 70 to 35 kilos between 1936 and 1939.

“We heard a lot of talk growing up about the hunger years during the Civil War, and we wanted to collect those stories before they were lost for ever,” says Laura. So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes.

More information

“A lot of people didn’t want to talk about the war because they had lost loved ones, or because they'd had a contact in the government or the unions and were able to access food,” says Laura, adding: “Others from different sides in the war were still arguing with one another.”

After a lightning campaign throughout the summer of 1936, Franco’s forces were brought to a halt outside the northwestern edge of the city, gradually closing the circle until March 1939, when the capital surrendered. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones.

The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.

/>The bags that contained bread buns dropped by Franco's planes over Madrid.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Madrid’s hungry years

/>Food gets shared out at Puerta del Sol in Madrid.

The abiding memory of anybody who lived through the two-and-a-half-year siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War is one of hunger.

As the forces of General Francisco Franco gradually won control over the rest of the country between July 1936 and April 1939, when the conflict ended, food supplies in the capital dwindled. Standing in line was a constant feature of daily life, with the more stoical ladies refusing to abandon their spot even as the bombs fell around them, in the hope of taking home a bone for stew or a sweet potato.

Lentils, dubbed “resistance pills,” were the staple that allowed countless families to survive. Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. Some children never saw a banana or chocolate until after the war ended, while the main topic of conversation in many households was: “What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted?”

A book originally published in 2003 and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil (or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War) provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.

Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda, now in their seventies, have collected recipes from around 75 of their contemporaries who lived through the siege in the Spanish capital. The two sisters, a historian and a pharmacist respectively, say in their introduction that their mother’s weight fell from 70 to 35 kilos between 1936 and 1939.

“We heard a lot of talk growing up about the hunger years during the Civil War, and we wanted to collect those stories before they were lost for ever,” says Laura. So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes.

More information

“A lot of people didn’t want to talk about the war because they had lost loved ones, or because they'd had a contact in the government or the unions and were able to access food,” says Laura, adding: “Others from different sides in the war were still arguing with one another.”

After a lightning campaign throughout the summer of 1936, Franco’s forces were brought to a halt outside the northwestern edge of the city, gradually closing the circle until March 1939, when the capital surrendered. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones.

The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.

/>The bags that contained bread buns dropped by Franco's planes over Madrid.

As money began to run out, many families were obliged to barter belongings, say the sisters. “People would go to the Torrijos market and exchange objects for food, supplies of which the unions tended to control: a sweater for a slice of bread. One of our aunts worked for a Swiss insurance company and was paid in cigarettes, which she would exchange for food,” says Laura, adding that the city tried to retain some semblance of normality despite the privations: “People went to work, and despite the hunger and the fear, the cinemas were open, which I have to say still surprises me.”

What did people eat during the siege of Madrid? Not much: mainly lentils, sweet potatoes, gruels, the occasional piece of salted cod, an egg every now and then, but virtually no meat. Rice and fruit stopped arriving in early 1937 after Franco’s forces cut off the route to Valencia, where the Republican government had fled to, leaving the capital under the command of a defense committee led by General José Miaja.

“Cats soon disappeared, because they tasted similar to rabbits, and people just ate them. Near our house a donkey that belonged to a coal delivery company died, and it was cut up and sold for meat. Dogs were also passed off as lamb,” says Carmen.

And as the siege wore on, the impact of this poor diet began to show itself through illness and diseases such as avitaminosis, pellagra, hunger edema, and even brain damage, particularly in the case of children. “Tuberculosis continued to cause many deaths until well into the 1940s,” says Carmen. "And because of the different illnesses and problems that hunger caused, there are no figures on how many people actually died from poor diet.”

Not even death was an escape from the shortages: “There was no wood to make coffins for the dead, because it had all been used for fuel. Many of the deceased were simply buried in sacks. People wanted to cut down the trees in the Retiro park, but City Hall forbade it,” says Laura. Instead, children would swarm over the ruins of buildings that had just been bombed in search of beams and any other wood they could find.

/>People collecting tree trimmings to use in their cooking.

In the final stages of the siege, Franco’s forces began dropping small loaves of bread on the city. They were wrapped in a Spanish flag bearing the legend: “In national Spain, united, great, and free, there is no home without a hearth or a family without bread.” The defense committee warned residents not to eat it because the bread could have been poisoned, but most people took no notice. “There were even bootlickers who handed them in to the authorities: I saw militia members throwing them down the drains.”

Gloria Fuertes, a novelist and poet who lived through the siege and died in 1998, wrote of the suffering caused by lack of food: “Hunger, hunger. Madrid began to suffer from hunger a month after the war began. One time we went three days on a fried egg, spreading it and hiding it away… I wasn’t afraid of dying, I just had the horrible stomach ache caused by hunger.”

More than seven decades after the war ended, the Gutiérrez Rueda sisters say they are dismayed to see hunger return to the streets of Madrid, and to hear charities such as Cáritas warn of an increase in child malnutrition. “The hunger’s not the same as during those times, and nowadays you can always go to a food bank,” says Laura. “But it’s horrible that people have to search through garbage dumpers, or that the police are chasing away people scavenging for the food that supermarkets have thrown out.”


Kyk die video: 20110602 Hirurzi operacija - TV Pancevo


Kommentaar:

  1. Morven

    By jou die nuuskierige gedagtes :)

  2. Eason

    Dieselfde en so

  3. Cynrik

    It is the very valuable piece

  4. Vanko

    Wat 'n interessante gedagte ..

  5. Enzo

    Wonderlike frase en betyds



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